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All the nearby galaxies we see come in visible range, many are visible from ground based telescopes. And the farthest galaxy that hubble discovered recently, 13.4 billion light years away is in infra red. Was this Galaxy ever in visible part of spectrum? How long will it take galaxies like andromeda or whirlpool to go infrared so that they won't be visible to us if we are not using in infraRed lens? What's the specific limit where the light makes transition from visible to infrared part of spectrum?

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  • $\begingroup$ Andromeda and the entire local group will never go infra-red because Andromeda is moving towards us and is due to collide with the milky way in 4 billion years and the entire local group is gravitationally bound. I'm not sure at what distance galaxies are no longer bound to us and likely to move away via dark-energy. $\endgroup$ – userLTK Mar 25 '18 at 12:11
  • $\begingroup$ Actually you pose the question how big is the visibly (wavelength in Vis) observable universe. I think that because of what @James K said, it coincides with the observable universe, ie till cosmic background. $\endgroup$ – Alchimista Mar 26 '18 at 9:38
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Galaxies give off a range of frequencies of light: Visible, but also infrared, microwave, and radiowaves. at longer wavelengths, ultraviolet, Xrays and gamma rays at short wavelengths. But stars give off quite a lot of their radiation in visible light, so nearby galaxies are quite bright in visible light and rather less bright in Ultraviolet.

Very distant galaxies are moving away from us due to the general expansion of the galaxy. This means that the light is stretched. Visible light gets stretched to infra-red, ultraviolet gets stretched to visible light. The distant galaxy is very very far away, and so very dim. It is a little bit brighter in infrared, although there is also a little visible light (and other wavelengths too)

Galaxies never go completely invisible in visible light, even if they are red-shifted, because there is always ultraviolet light to red-shift to visible.

The specific limit is often taken to be 700nm as the boundary between red and infrared. Although this is fuzzy because some people can see a little further than others.

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  • $\begingroup$ I wanna know about the distance limit from earth not particularly about the wavelengths. $\endgroup$ – Roxy Mar 25 '18 at 8:51
  • $\begingroup$ See paragraph 3 "Galaxies never go completely invisible" There is no limit. $\endgroup$ – James K Mar 25 '18 at 17:36

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