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Certainly among the first colonists on Mars there will be a few people interested in Astronomy enough to enjoy the night sky.

For them, familliar Mars will be missing and there will be a new, unfamiliar planet instead.

Planet by planet, how will their appearance and especially their behavior as seen from Mars differ from the way they behave in the night sky as seen from Earth?

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    $\begingroup$ Companion question in Space Exploration SE: What will shooting stars look like on Mars? $\endgroup$ – uhoh May 4 '18 at 6:55
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    $\begingroup$ You're only going one planet further out so broadly, Earth would 'behave' like Venus but apart from that, what are you asking about? Their motions across the sky? Phases? If they'd be easier / harder to observe? $\endgroup$ – user10106 May 4 '18 at 7:36
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    $\begingroup$ @Kozaky I've written over 1,000 SE questions and I've found that in some cases it's best not to over-constrain a question or spell out exactly the form of the answer ahead of time. You are welcome to post your comment as an answer, but if you just give this a day or two I think you'll find that someone will post an excellent and informative answer to the question in its current form. I think this will be a fun question to answer as-is. $\endgroup$ – uhoh May 4 '18 at 7:56
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    $\begingroup$ Currently I would only think of answering with "They'd 'behave' more-or-less the same as they do from Earth", which reads as a broad answer to a broad question. That's just why I was asking if there was anything more specific. $\endgroup$ – user10106 May 4 '18 at 8:49
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    $\begingroup$ Martian analemma is odd: apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap030626.html So planets might move a bit different than as seen from earth as well. $\endgroup$ – Wayfaring Stranger May 4 '18 at 17:19
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This should be a relatively simple problem to solve - which is the Academician's way of saying "do it as a homework problem" :-) .

First thing: find some celestial mechanics calculator and determine when each outer and inner planet is visible in Mars' night sky. That gives you timings.

Next thing: compare the distance from each outer planet to Mars vs. Earth. Maybe start with closest and farthest approach as examples. That'll tell you both the angular extent of the planet as well as the relative brightness compared with Terran observations. Don't forget to add a fudge factor for the atmosphere.

In fact, probably the most obvious difference will be that stars no longer twinkle. (yeah I'm ignoring during serious dust storms). You could use a wicked large primary and have no need of adaptive optic corrections.

BTW there are photos of Earth as seen by the Mars rovers (or maybe just the surveying satellites, I forget) so you can get an idea of the color/features available.

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    $\begingroup$ After thinking about userLTK's comment a while I'm beginning to think the question is indeed too broad for this site. One way to fix would be to ask only about Earth's appearance from Mars, as it would contain all of the necessary science and math to address the other planets later. Since you've already posted an answer, I'd like to ask if you would be OK with me making that change? $\endgroup$ – uhoh May 6 '18 at 2:32
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    $\begingroup$ @uhoh sure, or you could just post a new question on that specific topic. $\endgroup$ – Carl Witthoft May 7 '18 at 11:21

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