This should be a relatively simple problem to solve - which is the Academician's way of saying "do it as a homework problem" :-) .
First thing: find some celestial mechanics calculator and determine when each outer and inner planet is visible in Mars' night sky. That gives you timings.
Next thing: compare the distance from each outer planet to Mars vs. Earth. Maybe start with closest and farthest approach as examples. That'll tell you both the angular extent of the planet as well as the relative brightness compared with Terran observations. Don't forget to add a fudge factor for the atmosphere.
In fact, probably the most obvious difference will be that stars no longer twinkle. (yeah I'm ignoring during serious dust storms). You could use a wicked large primary and have no need of adaptive optic corrections.
BTW there are photos of Earth as seen by the Mars rovers (or maybe just the surveying satellites, I forget) so you can get an idea of the color/features available.