Celestia may do what you want.
Summary to "Planet by planet, how will their appearance and especially their behavior as seen from Mars differ from the way they behave in the night sky as seen from Earth?"
- Mercury and Venus are very similar. I don't observe retrograde motion in these planets or Earth.
- Earth: wildly different. It seems much farther away and dimmer.
- Mars: wildly different. It seems much closer and brighter.
- Jupiter and other outer planets: very similar. These mostly creep across the field of distant stars near the ecliptic. Periods are closer to a Martian year than a calendar year. If you track (described below) an outer planet, you can observe its retrograde motion. For instance Jupiter turns retrograde in March 2069 and does not turn prograde until October 2069.
To see that for yourself...
In Celestia 2.7, pick your viewpoint. Let's pick the center of Mars, at latitude 0, longitude 0, altitude 0 km.
(menu)Navigation | Go to Object...
Object Name: Mars
Now sometimes the texture wrapped on Mars is visible and we don't want that getting in the way, so let's make Mars invisible.
While we're here, let's also pick "Follow" so that Mars will not leave us behind when we speed up time.
Now we need to find the Sun.
Celestial Browser | (tab)Solar System |
(item) Solar System Barycenter |
(subitem) Sol | (context menu) Center
If we speed up time now, we will be at the center of Mars, always pointed in the same direction (relative to the distant stars), so every Martian year, the Sun will roll back through our field of view. We need to track the Sun. Click on the Sun in the starfield, which will highlight it with four red arrowheads. Then type "T" (the capital letter "T"), which will set us to track Sol.
Now let some time pass. Rather a lot of time. Maybe raise the rate to between 1e+06 and 1e+08 -times faster so some of the outer planets will wander in among the inter planets.
(menubar)Time | (button) 10x faster
(repeat as needed).
It can be helpful to have visible coordinate systems. In my screenshots, the "Ecl" (ecliptic line) is shown, using the toggle on the (menubar)Guides.
You may notice that Mercury's orbit doesn't quite fit in the field of view (shown in the lower-right corner, together with out "Track Sol" and "Follow Mars" conditions). You can narrow the field of view by typing comma, ",", and widen it by typing period, ".". A FOV of 70-ish degrees seems to keep the inner planets in view at all times.
The easiest way to track an outer planet seems to be to wait until the one you want passes Sol, click on it to Select it (which takes focus away from the Celestial Browser, which does not happen if you use the Celestial Browser to Select the planet), then "T" to track it. Retrograde motion should be during periods when the distance to the planet is near minimal.