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I posit that the giant planets comprise methane gas hydrate (CH4)8(H2O)46). If so, would not the Sun have to have a large composition of oxygen?

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  • $\begingroup$ Its not really clear what you are asking. Can you explain your assertion that the giant planets comprise of methane hydrate. Then explain how this links to the sun, and what you mean by "large". The composition of the sun is quite well known from spectroscopic and modelling data, and it is mostly H and He with small amounts of other elements. $\endgroup$ – James K Jun 22 '18 at 20:38
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    $\begingroup$ You state "The Sun's composition is based on the currently assumed composition of the giant planets". This is not correct. The abundances of different elements in the sun is estimated from a variety of data sources. I'm not an expert in this topic, but I don't think that the composition of the gas giants is a significant factor used to determine solar abundances. $\endgroup$ – Dr Chuck Jun 23 '18 at 9:40
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Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the Sun, hydrogen and helium being first and second. Most sources estimate solar oxygen abundance between 0.6% and 1.0% by mass. The astronomical literature expresses element abundance as a logarithm of atom count relative to hydrogen: $$A(x) = \log{n(x)\over{n(\mathrm{H})}} + 12$$ Lodders 2010, based on several contemporary studies, recommends a photospheric oxygen abundance value $A(\mathrm{O})$ = 8.73 $\pm$ 0.07, or 0.046% to 0.063% as many oxygen atoms as hydrogen atoms.

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Although the Sun and planets were born from the same cloud of gas and dust, it does not follow that the chemical abundance mixture in the Sun and planets will be the same. That is trivially obvious if you consider the case of the Earth, which contains comparatively little of the lightest elements - hydrogen and helium - which actually make up the bulk of the Sun.

The same is true to a lesser extent with the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn. Their bulk abundances are reasonably close to that of the Sun but not exactly the same. The reasons behind this are complex but are to do with the formation mechanism of the planets (which took some time after the Sun was formed) and chemical fractionation and condensation within the disc of gas and dust from which the planets came.

The chemical abundance mixture of the Sun is not derived from the abundances of chemical elements in the giant planets (which are more uncertain), but from a combination of analysis of the Sun's spectrum, which tells you about the composition of the photosphere, and by a detailed study of the composition of meteorites, which are thought to have formed very early in the life of the solar system and contain a pristine record of the abundances bar the absence of volatiles like hydrogen and helium.

Your reference to methane hydrates (also known as clathrates) is puzzling. These clathrates are well known to exist in the ices of the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Clathrates can form early in the life of the solar system and were probably incorporated into many of the icy and rocky bodies of the outer solar system. I'm not aware of any particular evidence that they occur in great abundances in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn (the outer atmospheres are all we can see) and they certainly would not survive the temperatures and pressure in the interiors of these planets.

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  • $\begingroup$ In the case of the planets the wisdom of many men is defined by the papers which are accepted for publication, disallowing other ideas. Therefore the existing 'consensus science' cannot be challenged. I have written consistent papers on Jupiter and Venus if you want to take the time to read beyond this. $\endgroup$ – Angiras Jul 16 '18 at 0:34
  • $\begingroup$ @Angiras and why would that be worthwhile when it is clear from your question that you have not taken the time to read about the science you claim to challenge. $\endgroup$ – ProfRob Jul 16 '18 at 6:57

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