# How did space start?

How did this 'black fabric' that we call space start? How was it made? How was the initial singularity formed? How did the first atom come into existence?

If it all started from a tiny particle that expanded and is now still expanding, how did that tiny particle come into existence ?

• Small point, but space isn't black, it's clear. That's why we can see things so far away. Commented Jul 30, 2018 at 10:16
• The false vacuum became unstable? Commented Jul 31, 2018 at 15:00

I'd like to add onto what James K said, but I'll try and simplify things too.

A singularity may sound like everything was at a "single point", but that's not what the word means in physics/math. A singularity, loosely speaking, is just a point where a function reaches infinity. It's not a physical object, but an input to a function. As James mentioned, 1/x has a singularity at x=0. At the moment of the Big Bang, several functions have singularities, as I discuss below.

So with that set aside, let's explain the Big Bang. Our modern theory of gravity, general relativity, indicates that the universe is currently expanding (i.e. space is being created between all matter). By that logic, we expect the matter in the universe to be closer together as we look further back in time. Our physical theories indicate that at earlier periods, temperatures were so high that even atoms couldn't form.

Our theories can handle these conditions pretty well, but eventually they start to fall apart. At a point around 13.8 billion years in the past, our calculations predict that the amount of space in the Universe should be zero. As a result, density, gravity and temperature would skyrocket to infinity — in other words, they have singularities at that moment. This moment is known as the Big Bang.

These infinities are a problem, since our theories break down at such extreme conditions. The Big Bang is an unsolved problem that modern physics has yet to explain. It's not the beginning of the universe per se, but rather we do not know what happened around, or before, that moment.

• Please can you explain how space(The black fabric) came into existence neither singularity equation nor any other theories clarify that ?
– Amey
Commented Jul 30, 2018 at 6:00
• It would be good if an explanation is provided that attempts to answer the OP... Commented Jul 30, 2018 at 6:44
• @Amey You're going to need to be clearer on what you mean by "black fabric". Commented Jul 30, 2018 at 6:44
• @IlludiumPu36 The premise is based on misconceptions. What kind of answer do you expect? Commented Jul 30, 2018 at 6:45
• @SirCumference The Darkness where all the planets are placed (The blackness) In general theory terms the dark cloth in which this planets are placed (Space)
– Amey
Commented Jul 30, 2018 at 7:03

Your confusion comes from the words "singularity" and perhaps "atom" and "particle"

An equation like y=1/x is singular when x=0. For a physical object modelled by the equation y=1/x the model can't be applied to understand the object at x=0, and it may or may not make sense to use the model for negative values of x.

The singularity is not an object. It would be better if people said "the equations that model the universe become singular at a point in time. The models that we have for the universe don't work at time t = 0, and it is not clear if negative values of "t" are physically meaningful.

The singularity was not a tiny particle that expanded. Since the singularity is not an object, it doesn't make much sense to ask "how did it form"

Atoms are another thing altogether. We know with great detail how protons and electrons formed. How most of the protons that formed were annihilated by antiprotons, but a few remained, and as the universe cooled, electrons bound with the protons to form atoms.

• understood that but can you explain a bit how space(The black fabric) came into existence neither singularity equation nor any other theories clarify that ?
– Amey
Commented Jul 30, 2018 at 5:59
• It has always existed. If you mean "spacetime", (which is not black, and not really a fabric) then at no time has it not existed, so it never came into existence. After all since space time includes "time" you would need say what you mean by "before time" Commented Jul 30, 2018 at 7:39
• but the explanation that it always existed cant really add up . everything always have a origin so how space-time originated ?as we know solar system is made by cloud dust , singularity makes the universe like that whats th reason behind space-time ?
– Amey
Commented Jul 30, 2018 at 8:29

I guess here there is an assumption that there was a singularity, where as Sir Circumference points out, both relativity and quantum mechanics break down.

Einstein even considered that the universe goes through eternal oscillations of expansion, crunch and bounce before Tolman showed that entropy can only increase, thereby resulting in progressively slower expansion. Which means through extrapolation there must have been some sort of beginning. Entropy is the problem in any cyclical model of the universe that involves matter.

Recent theorists such as Paul Steinhardt (Princeton) and Neil Turok (Cambridge) have proposed another theory of cyclical epochs where there is a limit on the net expansion phase brought about by colliding branes (membranes) and dark energy limiting entropy.

An alternative theory is the Baum-Frampton Cyclic Model which also proposes cyclical phases in regard to expansion, turnaround, contraction and bounce. Expansion results in the fragmentation of all matter into patches, or separate universes. Just before the end of time, at the turnaround, the patches individually contract and then bounce to infinitely repeat the cycle. Entropy becomes a non-player as the theory contends that contraction of each universe results in an empty state, that is, only dark energy and no matter.

Steinhardt–Turok model https://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0111030

Baum-Frampton model https://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0703162

• but this dosen't explain how the darkness which contain all celestial object is formed ? i want to know the origin of that !
– Amey
Commented Jul 30, 2018 at 9:05
• Aah, I see, you mean space itself. Space is just the distance between things. Commented Jul 30, 2018 at 9:29
• but space-time is like a fabric as explained by einstien its not just a mere distance all celestial objects are patched in space-time
– Amey
Commented Jul 30, 2018 at 9:39
• @Amey Space is just mere distance. No one ever said it was a "fabric". Commented Jul 30, 2018 at 15:11
• @Amey space-time is a mathematical model which describes the four dimensional continuum, time or interval being the fourth dimension. It can conceptually be viewed as a fabric to model the affect mass has on space and time. But as Einstein said "Space-time does not claim existence in its own right, but only as a structural quality of the [gravitational] field" and "Space and time are modes in which we think, not conditions in which we exist". Commented Jul 31, 2018 at 1:50