As @Donald.McLean said in comments, the answer is yes, the Moon can and does occult the other planets in the Solar System. When something apparently big (like the Moon) passes in front of something apparently small (another planet) it's called an occultation. (I say apparently because from our perspective the Moon appears larger than the planets.)
The planets lie* in the ecliptic plane whereas the Moon's orbit is inclined at about 5° to the ecliptic plane, so the Moon crosses the ecliptic plane twice each orbit, so it's not as frequent as it would be if the Moon's orbit were in the ecliptic plane.
Occultations of the planets by the Moon can be found here. There is also software (Occult) that you can use to generate your own predictions.
* Although the planets are said to lie in the ecliptic plane, this is a generalisation - they actually have orbits that are within a few degrees of the ecliptic "plane".