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Is the acceleration of expansion we observe with supernovae direct or is this an interpretation according $\Lambda$CDM model ?

I mean what we observe is luminosity distance versus redshift, so to see acceleration we should have scale factor vs time, which need a model, right (assuming Friendmann-Lemaître equations in which we need to consider homogenous universe for example) ?

Is it possible to say "our universe is in accelerated expansion" without any interpretation with a model ?

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  • $\begingroup$ Supernova brightness vs redshift. $\endgroup$ – Wayfaring Stranger Sep 26 '18 at 14:44
  • $\begingroup$ Redshift of line emission $\endgroup$ – Kornpob Bhirombhakdi Sep 28 '18 at 13:44

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