There are two different things going on, and they aren't too related (from what I can see). For the hot air balloon situation, you would think that if you hovered above where you are for 6 hours, the Earth could spin under you, and you would land back in a completely different place. Unfortunately, because the hot air balloon was on the Earth to begin with, it was already moving with the Earth. There are many reference frames in play, even though we feel like we are standing still. Everyone on Earth is standing still on the surface. However, the surface is rotating around the Earth's axis. The Earth's axis (and the Earth itself) orbits the Sun. The Sun is goes around our galaxy and our galaxy is travelling through intergalactic space.
So how does this relate to the hot air balloon situation? Well because the balloon was on the surface, it was already moving with the surface of the Earth. Remember how I said that the surface of the Earth rotates around the Earth's axis? Well, since the balloon was on the surface to begin with, it will also rotate with Earth's axis, just like the surface! What if we wanted to achieve that hover effect? I said earlier that the Earth orbits the Sun. In order to achieve that hover effect, we would need our hot air balloon to orbit the Sun without rotating around the Earth. You can't do this with a hot air balloon, since the atmosphere also happens to move with the Earth, and hot air balloons can't go into space. To achieve that hover effect, we would need some sort of spaceship with lots of fuel. If I had a hovering spaceship that didn't orbit with the Earth (this would, again, cost lots and lots of fuel), then yes, I could hover in the same spot and have the Earth rotate under me.
Now, you're probably wondering how I could achieve this with a spacecraft that was originally on the surface of the Earth. There wouldn't be much point in this hovering effect since you may as well just fly to your destination (like the theoretical Big Falcon Rocket), but if you wanted to do it, you would need to go above the Earth's atmosphere, use your boosters to go opposite of the rotation of the Earth (to cancel out your velocity), hover for some time, then use your boosters to go along with the rotation of the Earth (to return to rotation velocity), and land on Earth. Of course, you could skip the 2nd part by using heat shields and ramming into Earth's atmosphere like every other spacecraft we have, and no rocket would ever do this as it's just much more practical to orbit around the Earth (hovering costs fuel, orbits don't).
Ok, what about the sniper situation? The Earth rotate on its axis. Since a day is 24 hours long, a location at the equator goes around once in the same time it takes for someone in the arctic to go around once. However, the further north or south you are from the equator, the slower that part of the Earth has to rotate to complete 1 rotation in 24 hours. Think about spinning a ball. The equator of the ball whips around, but the top and bottom move much slower. It's the same thing. Lets say my sniper is at the equator. When the sniper shoots east or west, they do not need to correct for the Earth's rotation because everywhere along that latitude, the Earth is rotating at the same speed. However, if the sniper shoots north, the bullet will go to the east. That's because when the bullet was shot at the latitude closer to the equator (shot from the south), that spot of the Earth was moving faster than the spot of the Earth that the target was standing on. It's like saying that the spot I'm standing rotates at a speed of say... 1000 mph, but my target's spot rotates at say...995 mph. Since my bullet came from the 1000 mph part, it will obviously go out of the barrel at high speeds because of the gun, but it will also be rotating around the Earth's axis at 1000 mph. However, once my bullet starts approaching my target's latitude, since the Earth rotates slower, it will appear to deviate in the direction of the rotation (which is east, or to the right). Why? Well since my target's speed is 995 mph from rotation, you do 1000 - 995 = 5. That means that my bullet will have a net velocity of 5 mph to the right relative to my target. That means my bullet will miss if the target is far away enough. If you shoot from the equator to the south, the bullet will also go east, so as a result, it will deviate to the left. It's the same effect, but "upside down". This effect is called the Coriolis effect, and it's what gives hurricanes their power.
Finally, you asked "why don't we feel the Earth rotating beneath us?" This is because we are moving with the Earth. When you are on a train that is going at a constant speed of 50 mph, you do not feel it move (you may feel some bumps due to bumpy tracks). It is only when you accelerate or decelerate do you feel things move. When you are on the train, your speed is constant, so you do not feel anything. It's the same for the Earth, except you are rotating around the Earth's axis at a constant 1000 mph. Nothing has changed, except the speed is faster.
I probably explained this horribly so feel free to ask anything.