Did any moon landing vehicle or orbiter took pictures of a solar eclipse happening on the earth, i.e. the moon's shadow on the earth? (Alternatively from other spacecraft showing the whole globe). A link to those pictures would be nice.
Such images are most readily available from full-time Earth-observing satellites.
The DSCOVR climate observatory sees the Earth from Lagrange point L1, 3.9 lunar distances toward the Sun. Its EPIC camera captured sequences of images half an hour apart for the solar eclipses of 2016-03-09 and 2017-08-21.
Geostationary satellites orbit 0.11 lunar distance from the center of the Earth. The CIMSS group at Wisconsin has a collection of various weather satellites' images of several eclipses.
A lunar point of view would fall between these two examples, qualitatively more like the former than the latter.
Oddly enough, yes-ish. quoting from a space.SE post (pictures there),
Yes, well, kind of; JAXA's Kaguya (SELENE) took images of the Earth during the February 10, 2009 penumbral lunar eclipse from lunar orbit of roughly 50 km altitude, using its HDTV camera
There have been cases of Earth-orbiting satellites catching images too. For example, space.com has an article about the Proba-2 satellite doing so.