What are some examples of timekeeping that are based on the height/angle/position of the sun. Two examples that come to mind are the times of the Islamic prayers times and the golden hour in photography.
I suspect farmers in many countries still plant and harvest their crops based on the suns position in the sky.
We are now dependent for timekeeping on clocks, most clocks are synced (directly or indirectly) to atomic clocks that keep time without direct reference to the sun.
However, the principal definition of clock time, UTC, is coordinated to the position of the sun, through the insertion of leap seconds every 18 months or so. So anything that happens at a particular time is coordinated to the position of the sun, though not directly.