I read a few articles about lunar eclipses and while they explain the science behind them, they do not describe who explained it and how it was explained using the scientific method.

Some of them refer to Aristotle 2000 years ago; however, I that didn't really take any measurements using telescopes.

Has anyone in history ever conducted measurements/experiments to "prove" lunar eclipses?

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    $\begingroup$ What do you mean by "prove"? That lunar eclipses happen (the moon goes darker sometimes) is obvious to the naked eye. It's not much less obvious that it happens at full moon when the sun and moon are on opposite sides of the sky, so as soon as you accept that the moon shines with reflected light from the sun, it is clear what is happening. $\endgroup$ – Steve Linton Nov 19 '19 at 13:08
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    $\begingroup$ I'm not quite sure what you're asking. Astronomers have been predicting lunar & solar eclipses since Babylonian times. OTOH, the old methods were based on wrong models of the cosmos, and had various discrepancies with observation. Since Newton, we've made many improvements to lunar theory. $\endgroup$ – PM 2Ring Nov 19 '19 at 13:14
  • $\begingroup$ The "scientific method" wasn't codified until quite recently. $\endgroup$ – Carl Witthoft Nov 19 '19 at 19:36

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