I have seen, in my text books, and on nasa sites, the all the planets are symmetrical. And universe also love symmetry. What cause this symmetry, why the symmetry is important.

As we know that universe is expanding day by day. Will the symmetry will change. I am a high school boy, and happy to have an answer on it.

Edit:) we do not know where is the limit between quantum behavior and classical behavior. Can we put the local asymmetry of the universe on the quantum randomness? To be specific, the fact that looking in one direction we see the constellation Centaurus, and in another direction the constellation Lyra, can be put on quantum randomness?

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    $\begingroup$ Related: Why does gravity make everything round?. I'm not going to mark this question as a duplicate of the question I marked as related because that other question was not asked well. $\endgroup$ Nov 22, 2019 at 10:59
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    $\begingroup$ Try to ask only one question per question posted; you have three questions here, one about planets, one about the change in the structure of the universe over time, and one about the source of asymmetry. Those are all potentially good questions, but if you ask them all at once, you'll probably only get answers to one of them. $\endgroup$ Nov 22, 2019 at 15:46
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    $\begingroup$ Symmetry at what level? Our continents are seriously asymmetric. $\endgroup$ Nov 22, 2019 at 15:58
  • $\begingroup$ At universe level. $\endgroup$ Nov 22, 2019 at 16:06
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    $\begingroup$ "At universe level" doesn't make sense. $\endgroup$ Nov 23, 2019 at 3:58

4 Answers 4


The main force acting on start and on large bodies, such as planets and stars is gravity. Since it's symmetric, as long as the mass is large enough, gravity shapes those into an approximately spherical shape.

However, when rotation is considered, the sphere is slightly deformed into an oblate spheroid, approximately. That happens on Jupiter and Earth, just to give two examples.

Nevertheless, when looked closely, we can also perceive that astronomical bodies may present surface features, such as mountains, valleys or craters. And those are not symmetric.

Current theory accept that there is a symmetry of gravity and other forces and that the physical laws are the same across time and space (this is called isotropy), and it is not expected that the physical laws change.

See also Scientific American answer on why are planets round? and NASA's answer why are planets round?.


Planets and stars are roundish due to gravity. The gravitational attraction of an object to other parts of itself grows as objects get ever larger. This self gravitational attraction is negligible for tiny objects. Tiny objects are not symmetric. Their shape is closer to fractal. Somewhat larger objects are shaped more or less like lumpy potatoes. How lumpy depends on size, composition, temperature, and luck. Even larger objects exhibit a mix of potato shape and axial symmetry. Even larger objects exithib more or less axial symmetry.

An object's self-gravitation becomes overwhelming at some point. This point is a radius of 200 to 400 km, depending on composition, temperature, and perturbing influences. Objects at or near the potato radius such as the asteroid Vesta are roundish if one squints hard enough but still potato shaped if one looks carefully. As all of the planets are significantly larger than the potato radius, they are quite roundish.

  • $\begingroup$ Can you answer my edit part. $\endgroup$ Nov 22, 2019 at 14:43
  • $\begingroup$ @yuvrajsingh That edit completely changes the answer. You're not supposed to do that. If you want to ask about the distribution of matter in the universe, ask a new question - or better, search for an existing one, because this is one of the questions everyone asks here or on physics.SE. $\endgroup$
    – Luaan
    Nov 23, 2019 at 8:33
  • $\begingroup$ @Luaan I think you are right I will update it. $\endgroup$ Nov 23, 2019 at 8:54


Things in space large enough to consider(i.e. Generally Speaking), can have only two possible shapes: 1- Perfect or Distorted, some form of a sphere. Ex: Planets, Moons, Big Asteroids... 2- flat as discs. Ex: Galaxies

And no one knows about the shape of the universe because we don't even know how big the universe is.


Can quantum randomness account for observable discrepancy in the universe?

Your sample size is too small. I think if we could zoom out far enough looking at the CMB, we'd begin to see patterns emerge. And if we could model the entire existence of the universe, we would find the catch-22 of everything being exactly where it should be because of where everything was.

Given that all spherical objects are symmetrical and that 'the circle' is the most common shape in the universe, the question of why geometry has to do with the certainty of the different, but specific, lattices that will form from given atoms, because the shape of something at the molecular level is often the same at the visual level. It's turtles all the way down.

Now, if you ask why different atoms form specific geometries, that might not be exactly where the limit between quantum behavior and classical behavior is, but it's certainly the limit of my understanding.

In classical mechanics, "The ‘randomness’ stems from ignorance of physical information in the initial toss or throw." - which is why I mention modeling the universe in its entirety.

"In diametrical contrast, in the case of quantum physics, the theorems [...] indicate that quantum randomness does not stem from any such physical information." - which is the stop where I get off....

Quantum indeterminacy


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