If a person were standing on the surface of Mars, under ideal viewing conditions for seeing a meteor: no clouds, the sun has long set, would a meteor be visible to the naked eye considering how thin the Martian atmosphere is?
First Shooting Star Seen from Mars
The background image shows the meteor near the top-left and the horizon at the bottom. A red arrow shows the direction of travel. The inset is a larger version of the meteor itself. The graph is a "light curve" that aided in tying the meteor to comet Wiseman–Skiff. (Image: © Nature/NASA/Spirit/F. Selsis et al.)
This was made by Spirit's panoramic camera, so it probably would be visible to the naked (helmeted) eye.
Yes. There actually is an example. From the below text:
Dust from the comet impacted Mars and was vaporized high in the atmosphere, producing what was likely an impressive meteor shower.