Talking about instantly teleporting planets isn't very meaningful if you want to get scientific answers, as PM 2Ring pointed out. But is is almost certainly not physically impossible for them to have trajectories that let them all pass between the earth and moon at the same time. But the earth and moon would have to start out farther apart than they are now because all the planets passing in between would pull them closer together, and we want them to be at the current distance just at the moment the planets pass between.
The biggest issue here is tidal forces. Planets pull harder on the near side of other objects than on the far side, and the effect is much stronger the closer you are. Whichever planet was almost touching Jupiter would be torn apart by this difference in force - Jupiter's gravity would be pulling on the near side faster than the far side could catch up. The only way to avoid this is to have the planet passing by very fast, so it would only be in the area of maximal tidal forces for a very short time.
What exactly happened would depend on the exact trajectories. Obviously there are an infinite number of ways a bunch of things can fly past each other. The reason everything doesn't fall into Jupiter in this scenario is that they are moving fast enough and in the right directions. They will all definitely curve towards it, though. Its gravity would dominate the situation, but the gravity of all the planets would have to be considered if you were a super-powerful civilization trying to make this happen.