I want to know the expansion rate, composition, mass and density of hydrogen present of a Planetary nebula similar to that which will be formed after the death of our star the sun.

Knowing these data is important for me to do some calculations.

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ I've trimmed down your question, as your age isn't really relevant. You could be a bit clearer about what you want these for, as "to do some calculations" is very vague. I'd also like to know what research you have already done. Also, the values you seek will not be constant over the life of a PN, nor from one part of the nebula to another. However here is a link that may help aanda.org/articles/aa/pdf/2013/10/aa21532-13.pdf $\endgroup$
    – James K
    Mar 25, 2020 at 17:15
  • $\begingroup$ @JamesK thanks will keep in mind $\endgroup$ Mar 25, 2020 at 17:25
  • $\begingroup$ @JamesK thanks for the link $\endgroup$ Mar 25, 2020 at 17:26
  • $\begingroup$ @JamesK well I am an undergraduate s, just finished 12th grade at school and waiting for results . I have participated at inter school research paper presentations only. $\endgroup$ Mar 25, 2020 at 17:31
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    $\begingroup$ Yes, my point is that the PN will have exactly the same expansion rate if you were a PhD or a 12 year old! $\endgroup$
    – James K
    Mar 25, 2020 at 17:49

1 Answer 1


A Study to Show : Jupiter : Our Next Star

My 11th grade research paper 2018

Answers under -

Planetary nebula, pg 8-9

Total mass of the planetary nebula formed = 0.49 M⊙ (99% hydrogen)

Revisiting mass loss, pg 12

Density of CSE1 on reaching Jupiter’s Orbit after Thermal Pulse 1, pg 17


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