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A few dozen meteorites have been determined to come from Mars. These meteorites likely formed from three separate events.

Each one of these events must have created a big enough crater that rocks would escape Mars' gravitational field. This restricts the number of craters to look at.

The composition of the meteorites can also give clues. For instance, the basalts on the floor of Gusev crater are somewhat more mafic than the meteorites, so they don't come from Gusev.

Using crater size, rock composition,... would it be possible to determine which craters the Mars meteorites come from?

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Scientists think they have - the Mojave crater. Also see https://science.sciencemag.org/content/343/6177/1343

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  • $\begingroup$ That's for Shergottites. What about the other two types of SNC meteorites ? $\endgroup$ – usernumber Jul 22 '20 at 17:11
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    $\begingroup$ Perhaps start with the "Martian meteorites" Wiki page to find links to published papers - the information you are looking for appears to be easily accessible. However, this is not in my field so your question may be more complex than I realize. If the subject really interests you, keep searching. If you get stuck, update your post here so we can see what you've tried Most of what you asked for is easy to find, good luck! It is a fascinating subject, that's for sure. $\endgroup$ – AstroShannon Jul 22 '20 at 19:23

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