The Solar Year has huge effects on our climate, and the signs of passing seasons are physically evident on Earth. I recently learned about the Galactic Year. To my understanding, our sun orbits the Milky Way galactic center about every 200-225 million years. Do we know if there are any "seasonal" changes due to our position in the galaxy? One season of the orbital period (50+ million years) feels like a long enough time to leave a mark, if any effect exists:
- in the formation of solar system objects?
- the bombardment of planets and moons with meteors?
- the number, type, distribution, or trajectory of comets?
- the shape or density of the Oort Cloud?
- in Earth's geologic record?
- (at a stretch) mass extinction events?
Obviously you can just say "gravity affects everything, of course the solar system is influenced to some degree by other objects." But I mean specifically, is there evidence for any cyclical pattern which might be related to our position in the galaxy?