To answer your title question ("can moon rise before sun and set after it in the same day"), the answer is "yes," but the caveat is "barely."
The basic reason is that a solar day is approximately 24 hours. The equivalent "lunar day" (the moon returning to the exact same spot in our sky) is approximately 50 minutes longer. So, as long as the moon rises 49 minutes or less before the sun rises, then it will technically set after the sun by 1 minute or more. So, it basically happens during a new moon.
Because it happens during a new moon, it will be almost impossible to see with the unaided eye, if impossible, period. You would have to know pretty much exactly where to look, and look just before the sun rose, and just after the sun set, for it to be visible, otherwise the sky brightness would be too much for you to see it.
To answer other parts of your question, this happens at some time during the year pretty much everywhere on Earth, and the ≈+50 minutes that the moon takes to return to the same spot in the sky versus the sun does not depend on the lunar phase. It would happen for approximately half the planet every new moon (for the other half of the planet, the exact time when the moon is least full will be during that part of the planet's night). You also have to the sun and moon rise and set, so if you are some place on Earth where that does not happen, then this won't happen (such as in the arctic or antarctic circles during their summer, or during their winter, you would have to get it on an equinox).
These numbers will vary slightly based on where the moon is in its orbit (aphelion vs perihelion will change that +50 minute number), local viewing conditions will affect your ability to see the crescent, as will where the moon is relative to lunar nodes (if the moon is on a node when it's new, you get a solar eclipse; if the moon is farthest from a node during a new moon, the crescent will be very slightly more visible).
So, the text you quote is not correct from a technical standpoint. From a practical standpoint of the ability for someone more than a millennium ago to know exactly where and when to look, and even a modern person's ability to view it without an aid, then the text could be considered effectively correct simply due to the limits of the human visual system.