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I am aware that the vast majority of meteorites come from the asteroid belt (including 4 Vesta), with some from the Moon and Mars. Are there any other locations from which meteorites have originated (the Kuiper belt? Ceres?). Here it mentions that carbonaceous chondrites formed farthest from the Sun. Is that still within the asteroid belt?

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Kuiper belt (and beyond) objects do sometimes come into the inner solar system: we call them "comets". However comets have a large proportion of volatiles (water etc) and the non-volatile matter tends to be in the form of small dust particles, neither of which form useful meteorites Ceres is also covered mostly in ice, so even if some was ejected into space and reach the Earth, it wouldn't survive the descent.

An older paper wonders if very old dead comets might be a source of meteorites, but notes that none have been found. A much more recent paper describes a small (100 µm) particle of cometary dust found embedded in another meteorite. This dust particle would have come from the outer solar system.

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