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The majority of hot stars originate as binaries or multiple systems. How is it with the cooler spectral types? Are they usually born as single stars?

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Many hot stars are born in multiple star systems because the cores of these stars tend to split (see Jeans instability). With lower mass stars this still can happen. However, there are other ways. For example, in a young star cluster, close encounters with other stars can cause a star to be captured by another one.

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  • $\begingroup$ Thank you very much. Thus, what is the difference between the origins of hot stars and cooler stars as multiple systems? Is there a smaller probability that lower mass stars origin as multiple systems, but they are often captured by another one? $\endgroup$ – Elena Greg Dec 22 '20 at 14:02
  • $\begingroup$ @ElenaGreg They all usually start in large nebulas, which then turn into an open cluster as stars form; this is where most encounters occur. $\endgroup$ – fasterthanlight Dec 22 '20 at 14:11
  • $\begingroup$ And why the majority of hot stars originate as multiple systems is fully explained by Jeans instability? $\endgroup$ – Elena Greg Dec 22 '20 at 14:25
  • $\begingroup$ @ElenaGreg Yes, mostly. But also captures make some of it up as well $\endgroup$ – fasterthanlight Dec 22 '20 at 14:29

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