In the history of humanity, easily observable extra-(Solar System) objects greatly helped understanding certain phenomena inside the Solar System. Importantly, the “precession of the equinox”, and also true periods of heliocentric orbits lying near the ecliptic.
Imagine a system like our Solar System with indigenous astronomers who are unaware of far-away objects (or cannot determine their bearings). How can astronomers possessing some Early Modern technology learn of absolute (inertial) spacial directions then? Ī̲ see several possibilities: looking at highly inclined subsystems (think Uranus with its rings and satellites), noticeably eccentric orbits (such as of Mercury or, occasionally, of comets), or just inclined orbits (think Pallas). But do other reliable references exist?