Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune — can all have total solar eclipses so how long do they last?
TL;DR: Last for couple of seconds except for Jupiter where it lasts for minutes.
Phobos and Deimos are too small to totally eclipse sun but there are annular eclipses. See this video which Curiosity Rover took on Mars September 13, 2012 where Phobos is eclipsing Mars.
Only four moons are large enough to create totality: Io, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. But three can pass between Jupiter and the Sun at the same time. A triple eclipse happens on the gas giant once or twice every 10 years. Last for some minutes. For more information, see OP's answer.
Seven of Saturn’s 62 moons (Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Rhea, Dione and Titan ) are big enough to create a total solar eclipse. But because of Saturn axial tilt of 26.7 degrees, solar eclipses on Saturn are much more rare than solar eclipses on Jupiter (only occurs once every 15 years). This article discussed about eclipses by Pandora and Epimetheus (the former one lasted for split second and the latter one lasted for 15 seconds)
Twenty-seven moons circle Uranus, but more than half of them are too small or too far away to completely cover the Sun. Also, eclipses can occur only when the ring plane-crossing of Uranus (equinox) occurs, approximately every 42 years, with the last crossing being in 2007/2008.
Neptune’s six inner moons and Triton can create a total solar eclipse. Because of the planet’s distance from the Sun, Neptune only receives 1/900th of the light Earth does. At 0.018 degrees in apparent diameter, the Sun looks like a dot. That’s why Neptune’s solar eclipses start and end in a matter of seconds. Also, eclipses of the Sun from Neptune are even rare due to the planet's long orbital period and large axial tilt of 28 degrees. In addition, the largest moon, Triton, has an orbital inclination of about 25 degrees to Neptune's equator and has a retrograde orbit. So, eclipse occurs for only a couple of seconds.
Pluto also experiences total solar eclipses but every 120 years, Pluto and its largest moon, Charon, take turns eclipsing each other once a plutonian day: that’s approximately 6.4 Earth days. But because Pluto only shows one side of its face to Charon, solar eclipses only happen on that half of the planet.
Uranus has total solar eclipses once every 42 years https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_eclipses_on_Uranus