When researching for my question on extraterresitral snow, I learned about a rare snow formation called penitente which seems to be found on various (dwarf) planets, like Earth, Mars, and Pluto. Interestingly, these spike-like structures are an important place for life in extreme environments (on Earth) as shown by a study 2019 of penitentes in the Adnes, but this is not what I after.

My question: How abundant are penitentes in our solar system? Are they any estimates in terms of area covered or total ice volume present as penitentes per planet? I would also be interested in actual pictures of extraterrestrial nieves penitentes (including the image source).

How it looks like

ESO/B. Tafreshi (twanight.org)

Penitentes of the Atacama Desert, cropped from http://www.eso.org/public/images/potw1522a/


The Reference list of the Wikipedia article already offers a nice reading list, but I feel the list is far from exhaustive. What I found worth bookmarking:


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