the interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary study of how people in the past "have understood the phenomena in the sky, how they used these phenomena and what role the sky played in their cultures"
Beside this article, I also found a nice list of archaeoastronomical sites. What I have not found though is a statistics on the observational purposes of the various sites. Which kind of astronomical observations have most likely been made by these early observatories? It would be also interesting to know, at which earliest point of time which observation was possible. I am looking for a concise statistics of astronomical observations possible with ancient observatories, if that exists.
As a starting point might be the following list of reproducible observations possible with Stonehenge as extracted from a introductory astronomy article on Stonehenge
- Northernmost moonrise
- Southernmost moonrise
- Northernmost moonset
- Northern moonset minimum
- Midwinter sunset
- Midsummer sunrise
- Clive Ruggles and Michel Cotte (editors): Heritage Sites of Astronomy and Archaeoastronomy, 2012