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Some Hot Jupiters have retrograde orbits. What causes this? Are there any other common factors amongst the planets with these orbits and have any other types of exoplanet been found with retrograde orbits?

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    $\begingroup$ Could you give reference for your first statement? Also, retrograde orbit with respect to what? $\endgroup$ – User123 Jun 11 at 20:30
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    $\begingroup$ Reference: astro.gla.ac.uk/nam2010/pr10.php retrograde relative to the star's rotation. $\endgroup$ – sno Jun 11 at 20:56
  • $\begingroup$ Exoplanet HAT-P-6b is retrograde $\endgroup$ – Nilay Ghosh Jun 12 at 2:24
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    $\begingroup$ The widely accepted conjecture is that the star systems in question must have suffered a very significant but unknown disruption. $\endgroup$ – David Hammen Jun 12 at 7:52
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The paper https://arxiv.org/abs/2101.09371 describes a hot-Neptune on a near polar retrograde orbit and discusses three posssible mechanisms to produce such an orbit: nodal precession, disk dispersal-driven tilting or Kozai–Lidov oscillations, all of which depend on a second outer giant planet.

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