I asked already a similar question about the Earth orbiting a black hole but it was closed. So I ask a new one. What if the solar system passes a black hole? Say it has a mass of ten suns and the hole gets close to Earth but it will not enter the black holes horizon. The encounter is too short for that.
A 10 solar mass black hole passing through the solar system would completely disrupt it. The orbits of all the planets would be completely disturbed. Any particular planet could be hurled onto a elliptical orbit to be periodically scorched by the sun, then frozen, or it could be ejected from the solar system completely. In any case, in a fairly short amount of time, all life on Earth would come to an end.
Fortunately such an event is rare. Interactions with other stars happen rarely enough that you would expect there to be less than one such interaction with a star in th life of the universe, and black holes are much rarer than stars.