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From the Wikipedia article of "Solar Rotation":

Solar rotation varies with latitude. The Sun is not a solid body, but is composed of a gaseous plasma. Different latitudes rotate at different periods. The source of this differential rotation is an area of current research in solar astronomy. The rate of surface rotation is observed to be the fastest at the equator (latitude φ = 0°) and to decrease as latitude increases. The solar rotation period is 24.47 days at the equator and almost 38 days at the poles. The average rotation is 28 days.

What are the effects of different rotation period between latitudes on Sun itself?

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  • $\begingroup$ The sun is thousands of degrees on its surface and millions in the center. Without gravity, it explodes. $\endgroup$ Aug 1 at 1:25
  • $\begingroup$ It is curious that there seems to be equator to pole shear near the surface. I do think you need to remove the part about removing gravity, nothing meaningful can be said in that case; everything that makes the Sun what it is comes from gravity. $\endgroup$
    – uhoh
    Aug 1 at 3:09
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    $\begingroup$ You're asking two questions. Please note for future reference that one of Stack Exchange's reasons for closing a question is asking more than one question. $\endgroup$ Aug 1 at 3:46
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    $\begingroup$ @JBH Thank you for telling me that. I will remember not to do that in the future. $\endgroup$
    – user41291
    Aug 1 at 9:55
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    $\begingroup$ I've removed the question about gravity. It wasn't clear what it was about, how it related to the main question. $\endgroup$
    – James K
    Aug 1 at 12:04
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The sun is made of plasma, which is a conductive gas. As such, magnetic field lines will get trapped in the plasma and twisted by the differential rotation.

Tangles of magnetic field in the sun have produce very powerful magnetic fields. Where these tangles meet the surface of the sun there are active regions that have sunspots and prominences. The breaking and reconnection of these fields releases large amounts of energy into the solar atmosphere, causing coronal mass ejections.

The 11 year cycle of the sun's activity seems to be linked to a cycle of "tangling, breaking and relaxation" of magnetic fields, caused by the differential rotation of the sun. (source)

If you turn of gravity, the sun explodes, rotation is not the cause of gravity

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  • $\begingroup$ Thank you for your answer. I agree with you that rotation is not the cause of gravity. The differential rotation of the sun though i think that can be broken down. Maybe it is not necessary for us to know how a star is formed in order to understand why that differential rotation happens. A constant is that all the particles of the sun are charged, therefore there must be work. Is that right? $\endgroup$
    – user41291
    Aug 1 at 10:22
  • $\begingroup$ If you have a new question about why differential rotation occurs you can ask it. The question you posed was on the consequences, not the causes. $\endgroup$
    – James K
    Aug 1 at 12:05
  • $\begingroup$ Thank you James, i will create a new question. $\endgroup$
    – user41291
    Aug 1 at 12:19

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