Near-Earth Objects (NEO’s) are detected from imagery frames. The methodology is to ‘look’ for a tiny bright spot from several images, that has its pattern of brightness, shape and movement.
- Currently for NEO analysis Matched Filter Processing for Asteroid Detection is used. Matched Filter provides significant gain for processing images, used for asteroid detection and tracking.
- The methodology involves a two-step algorithm:
i. mean removal and background noise;
ii. enhancing the signal component.
Raw images are preprocessed, removing pixel artifacts, registering the frames spatially, and equalizing the background intensities.
A quadratic warp-fitting function used for the interpolation necessary to create a set of registered frames. Then a second-order warp with high accuracy positioning used in order to eliminate misregistering. Higher order registration techniques might be used.
MF algorithm itself equalizes the images.
- I don’t know anything relevant as MF is not an open algorithm.
More information might be useful for the ‘Near-Earth Object Observations Program’ from NASA.