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I am struggling to calculate the angular separation between a satellite in earth orbit and a planetary object using the Skyfield library. It's equivalent to calculating the angular separation between the moon and the sun that can be used to predict solar eclipses, except that the satellite APIs build geocentric vectors from TLE data while planetary objects are barycentric vectors based on ephemeris data. I’m interested the angular separation when the observation point is at the center of the earth, and also when the observation point is on the surface of the earth. In general, I seem to be unable to correctly place both objects in the same reference frame.

Specific questions are:

  1. Does the code below correctly calculate the angular separation between a satellite and the sun, and
  2. Is there a way to cast both objects in the same reference frame so that the tools in Skyfield can be used.

from datetime import datetime
from math import sin,cos,acos,degrees
from skyfield.api import Topos, load, EarthSatellite,utc,wgs84,N,W
from pytz import timezone

ts = load.timescale()

# get satellite data
url = '/home/…/TLE-2500km.txt'
satellites = load.tle_file(url)
sat = by_model = {sat.model.satnum: sat for sat in satellites};
sat1 = by_model[99990]

# get ephemeris data
eph = load('/home/…/de422.bsp')
earth = eph['Earth']
sun = eph['Sun']

# get dates
tStart = datetime(2021,10,30,19,19,12,tzinfo=utc)
print(tStart)
ti = ts.utc(tStart)

# earth position on equator
posLat = -25
posLong = -8
posAlt = 0.0
posTopo = wgs84.latlon(posLat, posLong, posAlt)

# generate where the satellite is in the sky with respect to posTopo
diff = sat1 - posTopo
diffAtTi = diff.at(ti)
satAlt, satAz, satDistance = diffAtTi.altaz()

# generate where the sun is in the sky with respect to posTopo
diff2 = earth + posTopo
astro = diff2.at(ti).observe(sun)
app = astro.apparent()
sunAlt, sunAz, sunDistance = app.altaz()

#generate angular separation
temp = sin(satAlt.radians)*sin(sunAlt.radians) + cos(satAlt.radians)*cos(sunAlt.radians)*cos(satAz.radians-sunAz.radians)
delta = acos(temp)
print("Angular Separation = %4.2f"%(degrees(delta)),'degrees')
------------
2021-10-30 19:19:12+00:00
Angular Separation = 5.23 degrees


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I think the best way to answer your question is to "ask Skyfield" to check it for you! See .separation_from() added back in 2016.

Sticking with Skyfield's methods ensures that issues like timeframes and space frames are handled correctly. The developer @BrandonRhodes (who also maintains PyEphem) has work painstakingly for years to ensure the integrity of the calculations used by Skyfield.

Using that together with Skyfield's Almanac methods allows you to search for custom made or predefined events without running into problems like this along the way.

This is a short answer (I'm not rewriting your script) to encourage you to try it and if it does what you need (which I think it will) you can come back and post a better answer to your own question.

Welcome to Stack Exchange!

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