Before I start this post, I'd first like to make clear that this account is an alternate of my SovereignInquiry account--at the moment, accessing this account is much more convenient, so if things I write here sound very similar to things mentioned by that account, it is no accident.
As I mentioned in this post, I have an AWB 130 Newtonian tabletop telescope with a 650mm focal length and a 130mm aperture. I described all my issues in the post. I also found this Q&A, which seems to suggest that I should be seeing quite a lot of detail, even including Saturn's rings. I live in a city classified as a class 7 on the Bortle Scale, which measures light pollution (1 being the most pristine and 9 being the most polluted).
In addition to light pollution, viewing can be affected by haze and air turbulence in the atmosphere and collimation.
But in what ways and how significantly do these factors affect viewing?