The Sun eclipsed by the Earth was actually recorded in 2009 by the Japanese lunar satellite Kaguya (athough this was strictly speaking not a total eclipse as such; see explanations below)
Here the report (from which the photo sequence was taken)
Here the corresponding video in (near) real time
The fact that the ring gets bigger from the top is due to the circumstance that the event happened exactly at Earth rise, so the bottom part is blocked off by the Moon's surface.
To avoid any misunderstandings of what can be seen here: as mentioned in the linked referencem this was a penumbral lunar eclipse, i.e. the Sun was only partially eclipsed by the Earth as seen from the Moon. So the diamond ring effect is here not the end of a total eclipse (as we are used to from solar eclipses as seen from Earth), but it is due to the uneclipsed part of the sun just rising over the lunar horizon. In the earlier part of the video it was still blocked by the Moon's surface. Due to the fact that the Moon has no atmosphere this looks then pretty much like a total eclipse up to this point
A true total eclipse of the Sun by Earth was however recorded in 1969 by the Apollo 12 astronauts on their way back home from the Moon. See this video, taken with an (apparently hand-held) 16mm movie camera