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Earth's core is a giant liquid iron ball actually. If I know well, the magnetic field of our planet (that protects the surface from some particles comes from the Sun) can exist because as Earth rotates, the liquid iron core also rotates, and it generates a magnetic field.

However, ferromagnetism has strict conditions. How can the liquid and hot core still be ferromagnetic? How is it possible for Earth to have a magnetic field generated by a body that is not even solid?

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Actually, the core has two parts. The outer core is liquid, while the inner core is solid.

As explained in the Wikipedia article about Earth's magnetic field:

The Earth's magnetic field is mostly caused by electric currents in the liquid outer core, which is composed of highly conductive molten iron.

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