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I watched the latest video of kurzgesagt channel, which is regarding supernova/gamma ray bursts, and its effects on earth. In the video he explains how gamma ray bursts or supernovas affect our earth. He said that gamma rays can trigger global cooling/ ice age and on researching further I found that late ordovician-silurian extinction may be caused by a gamma ray burst.

In the video he said about that gamma rays can cause production of free ions which can provide breeding grounds for massive clouds to form, obstructing the sun and cause global cooling. However I couldn't understand why this happens or what its mechanism is? I tried to find one research paper concerning biogeochemical effects of GRB, but it revolved around cocnentration of $NO_x$ gases, so I couldn't find any satisfactory answers. So my question is exactly how a GRB can cause global cooling on earth?

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