I am wondering how we can calculate the magnitude limit of the celestial object, which could be visible at the given sky surface brightness conditions.
We already know that Venus and Jupiter are visible in the daylight. Occasionally also Mars too. I've read, that the magnitude visibility threshold is about -2 Mag for a full day. It changes, and as the Sun goes closer to the horizon it causes the light to diminish in the thick atmosphere. I found information, that the Arcturus star (-0,04Mag) was once visible even 24 minutes before sunset! If, for example, we consider the civil twilight. Is there a chance of seeing the objects with a magnitude of +3 or even +4? A good example can be the 12P/Pons-Brooks comet, which will pass the perihelion on late April 2024. Its maximum brightness is estimated to be about +4.1Mag, but its proximity to the Sun probably excludes it from good visual observation. I am aware, that these assumptions will be completely different for the naked-eye approaches than for observations made through binoculars or telescopes. I am rather interested in naked-eye observations, but I would be really happy to know the source, which would include some comparisons/tables regarding this.
Does anyone know the article/book or presentation, which would cover my question?