The April 2, 2023 Inverse article 9 Years Ago, Astronomers Found Two Rogue Planets — But They Didn’t Realize It Until Now says:
Planets are typically part of a planetary system and are gravitationally bound to their star, or stars in the case of a binary star. Planets can migrate toward and away from their star when conditions are right, but they stay bound to the star, even if separated by a vast distance. But sometimes, a planet is kicked out of its system due to a supernova explosion, a stellar interloper, or some other event. And in some cases, a planet can form on its own outside of any solar system. These are rogue planets or free-floating planets (FFPs.)
Question: What are the cases in which free floating planets (FFP's) can form on their own, outside of any solar system?