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I'm asking about the time when temperature was super high, but at that time we already had proton, neutron, electrons.

It seems they were moving super fast due to temperature being so high.

What I'm curious about is why they couldn't get together to form atom. I read some stuff, where collision would happen and the high-energy particles collided with each other at a rapid pace, transferring energy and preventing the formation of stable atomic nuclei. but I don't really get it.

Would you be willing to explain it in simple terms by step by step the reason ?

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In an atom, the electrons are held around the nucleus by electromagnetic forces. The electrons have a negative charge, and the nucleus has a positive charge, and these attract.

But if you give the electrons more energy they won't stay orbiting a nucleus, instead, if they have enough energy they will go flying freely, forming a plasma composed of atomic nuclei (proton, alpha particles) and free electron

If you make something hot, it can transfers some of that energy to the electrons cause a plasma to form. It doesn't need to be very hot to form a plasma: the sun is made entirely of plasma, as are lightning bolts and there is some plasma in a regular flame too.

Atoms can only form when it is cool enough for electrons move more slowly and to be captured by the nuclei.

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  • $\begingroup$ Thank you 🙏 1. so since the area is too hot, it gives energy to the electrons and because of this, electrons dont stay at the orbital ? 2. Even though electrons dont stay at the orbital, protons and neutrons can still form the nuclei right ? $\endgroup$ Apr 18, 2023 at 20:13
  • $\begingroup$ Better question is why do protons and neutrons still make it possible to produce nucleus and rlectron not possible to be in the orbitals? With the explanation, protons and neutrons should also be moving and not possible to make the nucleus in this hot area $\endgroup$ Apr 18, 2023 at 20:19
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    $\begingroup$ By the end of the first second protons and neutrons have formed. They start forming at about 0.00001s. And then from about 10 seconds to 1000 seconds conditions are suitable for these to fuse into helium nuclei, So by 1000 seconds atomic nuclei have formed. Atoms don't form for a another 300,000 years. Before about 0.00001 seconds, its too hot even for protons and neutrons, and the universe is dominated by quarks. $\endgroup$
    – James K
    Apr 18, 2023 at 20:47
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    $\begingroup$ Its possible for nuclei to form before atoms because the protons and neutrons are bound much more tightly by the strong nuclear force, rather than the electromagnetic force. $\endgroup$
    – James K
    Apr 18, 2023 at 20:49
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    $\begingroup$ The strong force is very strong. Unfortunately your intuition is trumped by people who have done the actual maths and found out exactly what happens. I haven't done the maths myself (way beyond me) But that's really all there is to say. As the temperature drops from 1 trillion Kelvin to 10 billion then protons and neutrons form As it drops from 1billion to 10 million K nuclei form, and at about 4000K atoms form. $\endgroup$
    – James K
    Apr 18, 2023 at 21:15

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