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I know that "G0V" refers to stars with spectral type G0 but some stars have spectral type G0Vp. What does the extra "p" in there mean?

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    $\begingroup$ p stands for “peculiar,” in that the spectrum has something different from a “regular” G0V spectrum. $\endgroup$ Jun 10, 2023 at 1:33

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The p indicates some peculiarity has been noted in the spectrum of the star. For instance, some but not all lines of particular elements being strong or weak compared to stars of similar temperature. Or possibly some signs of emission lines (though an e normally indicates that) or rapid rotation. So probably a chemical peculiarity.

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The "p" in "G0Vp" stands for peculiar

Basically, the star shows some strange behaviour that is uncharacteristic of a typical "G0V" star.

It could range from anything, from flaring a bit more often than other stars to violent solar winds that lift millions of tons of gas.

Really, anything, that is peculiar, or strange characteristics that don't usually occur in that particular spectral class.

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    $\begingroup$ You're correct about what the "p" stands for, but the peculiarity being referred to is chemical/spectral/etc. in nature -- e.g. the presence or absence of certain lines -- and not the star's behavior. $\endgroup$
    – HDE 226868
    Jun 10, 2023 at 16:09

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