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According to the answers to Visible Stars in Andromeda Galaxy, is it possible to distinguish between different stars in Andromeda galaxy. What I am curious about is how much information are we able to extract about physical details of these objects. What can we tell about such distant stars? Can we resolve their individual masses and types?

Do we know, for example, what is the biggest star within M31? Or perhaps can we tell something only about a couple of special cases (such as variable stars, binary systems or massive giants) and information about individual "standard" stars is lost in the blur?

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    $\begingroup$ Apparently, we know enough to have figured out where some of its stars came from… arxiv.org/pdf/2208.11683.pdf $\endgroup$ Jul 10, 2023 at 23:57
  • $\begingroup$ This is a good "big picture" question and can be answered in a reasonable way, so voting to leave open so as not to prevent others from having an opportunity to add an answer; bountying as well! $\endgroup$
    – uhoh
    Jul 14, 2023 at 1:11

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Basically, we can determine the same information that we are able to extract from the spectrum of a nearby star, as long as the star in M31 can be spatially resolved.

You can find that information yourself, by using SIMBAD:

http://simbad.cds.unistra.fr/simbad/sim-basic?Ident=M31&submit=SIMBAD+search

Then scrolling down a bit, following the hierarchy link to "Children" (Warning: It'll take a while). In the list stars are denoted by "*"

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