I think probably not if you are interested in particular elements but possibly yes, if you are interested in groups of elements that are formed from particular nucleosynthesis pathways.
Stars certainly do vary in terms of their metallicity and that mostly, but not always, reflects the abundances of the various elements in the gas from which they were formed. In the case of the Solar System, the photospheric abundances that are measured in the Sun also match very well the relative abundances that are found in meteorites. i.e. The solids have a composition that follows the composition of the gas.
How available these solids are will depend entirely on the details of the planetary system and so one can't generalise. Solid cores that are sourrounded by extensive envelopes of gas or icy fluids (like the giant planets in our Solar System) are not very available. If rocky planets have had a substantial period where they are molten, due to heat of formation or radioactivity, then there is differentiation whereby the heavier elements will sink to their centres. The smaller bodies however, like the meteorites discussed above, should contain whatever chemical peculiarities are present in the star, at least as far as the heavier elements are concerned.
So what peculiarities are there? Well there are all sorts of chemically peculiar stars that have photospheric abundance anomalies, sometimes manifested as very high abundances of one or two elements. However, these peculiarities are likely "skin deep", are caused by internal processes and don't reflect the initial bulk composition of the star and therefore are unlikely to be duplicated in any surrounding planetary system. Unless you are somehow able to "mine" the surface layers of the star, then that isn't much help (hence my query to your question).
A better bet is to focus on stars that may have been abnormally enriched by particular nucleosynthetic pathways in previous stellar generations. For example it may be that a star forming region is enriched by one or more kilonova explosions caused by merging neutron stars. This might inject an abnormally high amount of r-process elements like gold, platinum and lanthanides. The subsequently formed stars and their planetary systems might be expected to have a higher abundance of these elements. Whether they are available or not depends on where you try to find them.
The problem with this scheme is that individual kilonovae or supernovae probably don't make much of a mark in star formation that has taken place over the last many billions of years. That is because the interstellar medium is already enriched by hundreds of millions of such events in the first billion years or so of our Galaxy's existence. Thus when you do identify stars with big r-process element enhancements (e.g. Gull et al. 2021), they are old, generally metal-poor stars and thus have absolute r-process abundances that are still rather low. Nevertheless, if solid material and planets etc. can form around these stars then it could be that those solids are also r-process-rich and these planetary systems could be literal gold-mines.
The evidence on this is lacking, though. Giant planets probably are much rarer around metal-poor stars (e.g., Boley et al. 2021), but whether that is also true of the smaller bodies where you might want to mine your r-process elements is not well understood (e.g., see this article).