In the far future there will be most likely a point where a maximal state of entropy will be reached in the universe and after the last black hole evaporates there could be no more structures and no more work could be done.

According to the Poincaré recurrence theorem for a closed universe there could be a reversal of entropy in long-term periods. However in a flat universe with an accelerated expansion it is not so clear that this theorem holds.

However, are there any other mechanisms through which entropy could be ever reversed eventually after reaching heat death? Perhaps something related with quantum fluctuations?

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    $\begingroup$ How about a quantum fluctuation that creates a new universe inside this universe? It has been proposed as an explanation for how this universe was created. Given an infinite amount of space and time, anything can happen. $\endgroup$
    – eshaya
    Commented Aug 1, 2023 at 19:01
  • $\begingroup$ It's an interesting question. What I've heard is it's likely this universe will eventually reach maximum entropy and thats the end, however others have said, that is considering our universe at our scale. But at a much larger scale all the remaining matter and energy our dead universe would be contained in a single point, thus the possibility of a big bang to a new universe on the much larger scale. $\endgroup$
    – scm
    Commented Aug 6, 2023 at 14:20


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