tl;dr astrophotographers shouldn't carry their cameras in their pockets :-)
I took photos of the Moon and Jupiter with my cell phone last night as well.
I keep my phone in my pocket and the lens front surface gets dirty (dusty and greasy) and this produces both halos (or fuzzy blobls) and streaks. The streaks come from directional rubbing (in my pocket or intentional half-hearted attempts to clean using my shirt tail) which pushes the dirt and grease into oriented distributions.
These are in all our cellphone photos, but it's usually the astronomical ones, or ones with bright point sources like lights where they become visible.
Of course as @Dr.Chuck points out that while the fuzzy blob comes from small angle forward scattering from tiny particles, they can be water droplets in the atmosphere, as well as on your camera lens. Cleaning the lens will differentiate between the two.
The differences between the first and second image are
- better attempt at cleaning the lens (cotton shirt tail, hoping the sapphire lens cover doesn't scratch)
- substantial reduction in exposure time (brightness) from the original one chosen my the camera. Foreground objects look darker (bad) but the Moon is less overexposed (good).
Also note the 2nd image of the moon nearby - this is lens flare and I onced used it effectively to photograp a partial solar eclipse. It appears diametrically opposed from the original source (reflected about the center of the image). I just use a simple photo editor and take a tiny patch of nearby black sky and paste it over the flare image.
Photos taken of the Moon and Jupiter 2023-11-23 23:11 (UTC+08)