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Was there a conjunction between Jupiter and Mercury in 2 BC seen from Persian Gulf? Was there a conjunction between Jupiter and Venus in 4 BC seen from the Persian Gulf? If so, what day, time, and degree of separation? Thank you!

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    $\begingroup$ What counts as a conjunction is really more a matter of oppinion. The best way to answer your own question would be to use planetarium software like Stellarium to browse through the dates you're curious about. $\endgroup$ Dec 19, 2023 at 0:21

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On the 26th of August 2BC (in the proleptic Gregorian Calendar). Jupiter was close to Mercury. It might have been visible shortly before sunrise but it was very unfavourable, too close to the sun, about a degree of separation.

On the 24th of May 4BC Jupiter was close to Venus. Again, it was unfavourable, and too close to the sun, but might have been just about visible in the evening twilight—about 1.5 degrees separation.

There is normally some kind of conjunction each year between the inner planets and Jupiter. These were not particularly notable, close or visible conjunctions.

These ephemeris are from the model used by Stellarium.

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