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From geological records in rocks and minerals we know that the magnetic field of Earth changed its polarity multiple times in the history. See Geomagnetic reversal.

Was a similar process of a planetary magnetic field reversal observed on other planets?

I suppose that the record could be in rocks directly found on the planet (i.e. Mars), on its moons or in asteroids.

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There are such evidence in the case of Mars. Observations from Mars Global Surveyor show evidences of crustal magnetization. In particular, this magnetization has extensive, east-west trending linear features in Terra Cimmeria and Terra Sirenum. These are probably reminiscent of magnetic features associated with a reversing dipole.

There are no such evidence in the case of Venus: Venus has no intrinsic magnetic field today (contrary to the common belief, its inability to maintain a dynamo activity is either due to its chemical and physical conditions unable to form a solid core, either du to an early complete core solidification; it is not due to its slow rotation), and could not have maintained a remanent crustal magnetization, because its crust would have been to hot during its dynamo activity (above the Curie point).

Sources:

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