If Mars were coated in a dark substance that absorbs sunlight (including infrared light), would this heat up Mars? I am envisioning a fine dust that is dispersed into the atmosphere, but possibly settles on Mars's surface all around. If we were able to change the albedo, possibly down to as low as 1%, would that make Mars habitable (temperature wise)? If the albedo were changed all the way to 1%, could this even make Mars too hot?
Of course! Actually this is one of the possible ways we have in order to make Mars friendlier to humans. This technique is called Terraformation and it inludes the altering of the Mars surface's albedo. However, the feasibility of this plan is yet questionable and there are maybe better ways to achieve this increase in the temperature like CO$_2$ emissions. Here is a nice article discussing exactly this subject.