The LOFAR project open a new window in the universe's study because it allows to receive low frequences of the universe that we could not get because of the ionosphere. But I'm wondering how can LOFAR pass through the ionosphere? Is it because of the large fields of antennas? Or it is something else? Thanks for any answers which can clear my mind.

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    $\begingroup$ LOFAR corrects for the ionosphere in its calibration procedure. If you're looking for a technical discussion take a look at LOFAR's calibration methods: here and here $\endgroup$ – Michael B. Sep 2 '14 at 19:17

LOFAR does not go 'through the ionosphere' as it's ground based. Rather, it is able to receive signals from outside the ionosphere due to the very low frequencies involved. These frequencies (naturally) have very long wavelengths, which means that LOFAR must be very large to obtain a decent level of resolution. The number of antennae will affect sensitivity and reliability.

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