Light refracts in the atmosphere, causing the light to scatter in many directions. This light scattering is what causes our day to be blue, our sunsets to be their red-orange-violetish colors and allows us to see the light of the Sun shortly before sunrise and after sunset. As this only begins happening in any significant amount after the light enters Earth's atmosphere, there should not be any notable difference in the color or intensity of light between you and the moon and any other part of the sky at a relative angle from the Sun.
On the other hand, the foreground does not have direct light on the photographer's side (because it is nearly between the sun and the photographer) and there is a very limited amount of atmosphere to scatter light. As a result, less light will be coming to the camera from that direction.