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I am doing some calculations, and I wanted to know that after using the gravity equation, $$F = G \frac{m_1m_2}{r^2}$$ if you can use $F$ and convert it into a speed, such as km/year, and also a direction or angle from the original direction. I am just looking into astronomy, and any help is appreciated.

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You must apply Newton's law $$ m\frac{\mathrm{d}\boldsymbol{v}}{\mathrm{d}t} = \boldsymbol{F}$$ which related the force $\boldsymbol{F}$ to the acceleration (=change of velocity). Note that positions, velocities, and forces are all vector quantities. Also note that as the objects move (change position), their mutual forces change (both direction and strength).

There is an enormous amound of literature on the resulting orbits for celestial bodies, going all the way back to Kepler and Newton. I suggest you look into elementary books or start with some Wikipedia articles.

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