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First of all not to consider me a conspiracy theorist, but isn't landing on the moon a questionable issue? I am really not an expert in astronomy but let's assume that a moon landing has happened.

1- How would the Gamma rays and cosmic rays affect the equipments on the lunar surface and would these equipments function normally like on earth?

2-Could the enormous amounts of solar energy bursts be avoided somehow for protecting human flesh?

3-How is it possible for an FM or any kind of data transmission type be achieved in an environment that has nothing but an empty space? How would the electromagnetic waves travel and enter the earth's atmosphere to be captured by the receivers?

4-What is the bright lunar surface real temperature and is there a way to equip an astronaut to protect him from the over-heat?

Thanks for sharing any ideas that could explain these points not just for me, but for interested people who might view this question.

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  • $\begingroup$ These are all very different questions and would be better suited to be asked individually where not already answered elsewhere. $\endgroup$ Feb 11 '15 at 2:26
  • $\begingroup$ @MitchGoshorn So you suggest to separate them into individual questions? $\endgroup$ Feb 11 '15 at 2:29
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    $\begingroup$ Yes, generally questions should be limited to only one question. In its current format, this question would likely end up flagged as being too broad. This is because as each individual question has its own acceptable answer, they should be asked and answered individually, though some may already be answered in other questions. $\endgroup$ Feb 11 '15 at 2:57
  • $\begingroup$ Please don't close this questions since it's a clear proof of the supremacy of science and knowledge against the ignorance of skeptics. Thanks for you wonderful answer @David Hammen. $\endgroup$
    – Joan.bdm
    Feb 12 '15 at 7:43
  • $\begingroup$ @Joan.bdm I agree, perhaps closed and kept for the good reasons you stated $\endgroup$
    – user2449
    Feb 14 '15 at 0:51
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First of all *not to consider me a conspiracy theorist(, but isn't landing on the moon a questionable issue?

Only to conspiracy theorists. To everyone else, no, it's not a questionable issue. My father in law helped send men to the Moon. I have worked with a number of people who sent men to the Moon. I was once called on the carpet in Gene Kranz's office. I find it extremely insulting to think that it is a questionable issue. So excuse me if my response might seem be a bit insulting.

How would the Gamma rays and cosmic rays affect the equipments on the lunar surface and would these equipments function normally like on earth?

Equipment and humans did not suffer immediate damage given the short period of time that humans did spent on the Moon. One of the effects of mild radiation is increased risk of cancer (but that's a long-term effect). The men who went to the Moon (and they did go to the Moon) did indeed suffer increased cancer rates compared to the Earth-bound population.

Could the enormous amounts of solar energy bursts be avoided somehow for protecting human flesh?

By luck, there were no large solar energy bursts when men were in space on the way to the Moon, on the Moon, or coming back from the Moon. A large coronal mass ejection event did happen on August 7, 1972, but that was (by luck) sandwiched between the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 lunar missions.

How is it possible for an FM or any kind of data transmission type be achieved in an environment that has nothing but an empty space? How would the electromagnetic waves travel and enter the earth's atmosphere to be captured by the receivers?

This question makes no sense. Look up in the sky during the day. What do you see? You see the Sun. Look up in the sky at night. What do you see? You see the Moon, the planets, stars, and if you live in an area with low humidity and limited light pollution, you even see other galaxies. With your naked eye. The only difference between light and FM is frequency. Both are forms of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation travels unfettered through empty space.

What is the bright lunar surface real temperature and is there a way to equip an astronaut to protect him from the over-heat?

The first defense against the temperature extremes of the space environment is very simple: It's coloration. A spacesuit that was jet black in the visible range but white in the thermal infrared would have quickly killed the NASA astronauts on the Moon due to overheating. On the flip side, a spacesuit that was white in the visible range but jet black in the thermal infrared would have resulted in overcooling. The space suits worn by the NASA astronauts on the Moon were white in the visible range but grayish in the thermal infrared. NASA spent a lot (a whole lot) of money investigating different fabrics, different dyes, and different paints. Passive thermal control is the first step in any space operation against the extremes of space. Active thermal control addresses what little passive thermal control can't address.

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  • $\begingroup$ Well, after an unfair down-vote and a pretty aggressive manner of speaking. I will ensure you again that I AM NOT A CONSPIRACY THEORIST. The second point is I am not here to insult you or anyone else.thirdly you haven't given any clear answer about temperature of lunar bright surface, and by the way experts reports clarify that no regular equipment could function properly in the earth's outer atmosphere /let aside working on the moon/ because of huge amounts of rays and energy ejections which is earth protected from by a shield. $\endgroup$ Feb 11 '15 at 5:29
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    $\begingroup$ Fantastic answer, excellent explanations @DavidHammen! $\endgroup$
    – user2449
    Feb 11 '15 at 9:10
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    $\begingroup$ @Billo - Your experts are wrong. NASA has a spacecraft orbiting Mercury, where it receives 5 to 10 times the radiation dose from the Sun than did the Apollo astronauts. NASA has rovers on Mars, which offers minimal protection against radiation. One of those rovers (Opportunity) has been operating for over 11 years. Voyager 1 has been operating for over 37 years. It is now in interstellar space, where it has zero protection from the Sun's heliosphere against cosmic particles. $\endgroup$ Feb 11 '15 at 13:17
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    $\begingroup$ @Billo - Regarding surface temperatures, the astronauts wore rather expensive boots that were heavily insulated. Moreover, all of the Apollo missions occurred shortly after lunar dawn. This was mostly so the astronauts could see shadows better during landing; concerns about high surface temperatures made just after lunar dawn preferable to just before lunar sunset. $\endgroup$ Feb 11 '15 at 13:20
  • $\begingroup$ @DavidHammen: Your answer is detailed and put together, however your answers to the 3rd and 4th points are ... a little wrong... (3) Electromagnetic radiation is self propagating, and therefore doesn't need a medium to help it travel. (4) Black colored things absorb more radiation and thereby more heat. (see any definition of blackbody). It is more about reflectability than "coloration". $\endgroup$
    – LaserYeti
    Sep 17 '16 at 5:38

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