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Questions tagged [atmosphere]

Questions regarding a layer of gasses surrounding a celestial object.

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Adiabatic versus convection

I am reading about the interior temperature structure of Jupiter. It says in various texts that there are regions in Jupiter's atmosphere which are well-approximated by a dry adiabatic lapse rate. ...
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43 views

Is Titan Better or Mars? [on hold]

Isn't Titan better to colonize than Mars? It has a thick atmosphere which is made up of nitrogen like our planet's. It doesn't have a magnetic field, but it does get a type of protection from Saturn. ...
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564 views

How does gravity affect pressure under water?

How different would being under water in Europa differ from being under water on Earth? Would it be possible to dive deeper on Europa with a submarine than on Earth and by how much?
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1answer
150 views

What is the underwater temperature of Europa?

If Europa has an oxygen atmosphere with a water mantle, is it possible that there could be life under the crust of Europa ice on the ocean where it is warmer? What could be the temperature under the ...
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1answer
49 views

Solution for counting atmospheric layers of planets according to relational data [closed]

This math states, that by multiplying the gravitational pull (we assume square of density of the planet), by its inclination (being how high and out it goes) and subtracting that loop from the ...
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1answer
61 views

Mars vs Venus: the retention of atmospheres in relationship to Earth

Correct me if I'm wrong, but the factors than enable a planet to retain or lose an atmosphere seem to be: 1. Magnetic Field, 2. Solar Winds, 3.Weight of Gases, 4. Planetary Temperatures. 5. Distance ...
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3answers
149 views

Why do stars twinkle but planets don't [duplicate]

Many people say that stars twinkle because of Earth's atmosphere. However, the atmosphere is still there when we look at planets and don't see they twinkling. Is there a clear scientific consensual ...
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1answer
34 views

How thick or deep does solid carbon dioxide accumulate on Mars?

On Mars is there an area in which all the $CO_2$ evaporates exposing dirt near the pole? How deep can solid $CO_2$ accumulate during winter in that area during the Martian Winter? https://space....
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1answer
66 views

What is the smallest possible planet with same sea level atmospheric pressure as Earth? [closed]

Suppose there is a planet made of pure tungsten (a quite common and heavy element), with perfect spherical shape. Which should be its radius so that the air pressure and ground/sea level is the same ...
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22 views

What are the real conditions for the creation of an atmosphere/loss of an existing atmosphere?

Overview: Taking a planet Ganymede for example (moon, technically I suppose). Ganymede is huge (well, in contrast to other bodies) and I've noticed a pattern between larger bodies and atmospheres. ...
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3answers
127 views

Could the Moon sit on the Earth?

Let say that the Earth's Moon was knocked out of orbit and landed on the Earth with some damage but not world ending. Would Earth's atmosphere envelop to include the Moon? Would the moon sink into the ...
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1answer
72 views

Why does the adiabatic exponent decrease at the ionization zones?

The context is the ionization zones in stellar atmospheres or interiors, the Sun, for instance. The adiabatic exponent is the heat capacity ratio: $$\gamma = \frac{c_P}{c_V} = \frac{C_P}{C_V}$$ And,...
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94 views

Is it possible to see Saturn from Titan's surface, day and night?

Titan is the only moon in our solar system with a thick atmosphere, similar to what our Earth's atmosphere was before life "appeared". It also orbits Saturn close enough to actually see it beautifully ...
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1answer
129 views

Looking at ourselves with a powerful telescope?

Could a small curved mirror and/or lens in Earth's orbit be aimed at a different hemisphere from where you are be be viewed with a powerful telescope to see the ground through the mirror? Would a more ...
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1answer
127 views

How deep in Mars would a person not need insulation and pressure? [duplicate]

How deep in Mars' surface would one have to go to both not need a pressurized suit and be warm enough to just wear clothes? in other words is there a dept Goldilocks where you would only need an ...
5
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1answer
101 views

Does Pluto's atmosphere collapse?

There were theories that Pluto's atmosphere collapses when it gets too far from the sun. Then I've read papers that says that it doesn't. But NASA says that the surface pressure went down recently (...
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5answers
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Why is moon light not the same color as sunlight?

The light from the moon is light being reflected from the sun. The sun, in space, is white. But on Earth, when the light is filtered through an atmosphere, the light appears yellow. So then, why is ...
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2answers
106 views

Say we were to bring Titan to Earth's orbit. How much would its atmospheric pressure change?

I've heard one of the reason why Titan has such a thick atmosphere is because of its really low temperature. So say that were were to magically bring Titan to the Same orbit as Earth, and the moon ...
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2answers
87 views

Can a planet's gravity rip out its moon's atmosphere?

We all know that solar flares can rip a planet's atmosphere if the magnetic field is weak.Solar flares travel at tremendous speed so when they hit the gas molecules of a atmosphere the molecules are ...
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1answer
69 views

Where will the atmosphere of our Earth go if our sun blows it away completely?

What will happen?Will our atmosphere head to the next gravity dominant body?Will our moon hold a part of our atmosphere or is too weak to hold it?Where all those gases are supposed to go?
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0answers
51 views

Is thermal disintegration of meteorites variable with lattitude?

If meteorites and bolides are aligned to the solar system, then do they have twice as much atmosphere to go through at high latitudes? Wouldn't we expect a higher percentage of metal meteorites ...
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1answer
103 views

Helium discovered on an exo planet

Why is there so much excitement over helium having been discovered on an exoplanet? Isn't it oxygen that we should be looking for, since this is what is needed for life? What do we need helium for?
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1answer
37 views

Scattered Intensity of Light vs Angles of Incidence and Emission

So I just derived an expression for the scattered intensity of light from an atmosphere with ideal isotopic scattering: $I/F=\frac{cos(i)}{4(cos(e)+cos(i))}$, where $I$ is intensity, $F$ is flux, $i$ ...
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1answer
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Is there a comfortable part of Venus's upper atmosphere?

I know the surface of Venus is very hot, but that it gets cooler the higher you go in the atmosphere. I have heard that there is a section in the atmosphere of Venus that might be somewhat habitable ...
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1answer
105 views

What would the pressure and temperature of gas be, right above Jupiter's gas/liquid boundary?

Older pages like this "Exploration of the Solar System" course page describe the transition as being a few hundred kilometers down. More recent findings seem to put the boundary deeper. See The ...
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1answer
51 views

What does “O I” mean in the context of detected molecules?

I've recently been analysing the Exoplanet Database, and have been looking at the 'molecules' field (molecules detected on the planet or in its atmosphere). They all make sense apart from "O I". It's ...
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1answer
66 views

What is tilt anisoplanatism for Laser-guide-star usage in adaptive optic systems?

How does tip-tilt mirrors correct such issue? What is the physical origin of the error?
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1answer
74 views

Venusian polar surface temperatures

I've stumbled across several articles about how the Venusian polar high atmosphere is really cold. What these articles appear to fail to specify is what the surface temperatures of the poles are. I am ...
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1answer
95 views

Do the gases in the Earth's atmosphere affect the color of a lunar eclipse?

As the sun's rays pass through the Earth's atmosphere only the red light gets through. Is this the result of specific gases in the Earth's atmosphere filtering the red light? Does all of the nitrogen ...
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0answers
395 views

Terrestrial Exoplanet Skies – I've Built a Visual Sky Chart. Is it Accurate?

I'm an artist (and science enthusiast) and I've been trying to find a comprehensive resource that would help me clearly identify likely sky colors (as perceived by human vision) for exoplanets that ...
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1answer
113 views

How much time does it take for a meteor (shooting star) to touch the ground after its combustion? [closed]

I know that meteors that We see as shooting stars travel tens of thousands of kilometers per hour and are tiny as a grain of sand, but after hitting the atmosphere and burn I suppose that its ashes ...
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1answer
100 views

Is it thought that the majority of Earth size or larger terrrestrial planets have retained most of their original atmospheres?

I used to think that most terrestrial planet atmospheres were secondary (from out gassing). However, after reading this https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20140017487.pdf and ...
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1answer
70 views

How long can afterglow last after a fireball?

I was watching the YouTube video Perseid Meteor Shower - Mojave Desert, California which looks East before sunrise, presumably in mid-August of 2016. I've made a GIF of a few seconds near the ...
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1answer
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The consequences and the mechanisms of a shift of the Earth away from the sun

First premise: I have already made this question in the worldbuilding section, but since it is a very specific question many have recommended me to write in the astronomy section so here we are. ...
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2answers
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Where does the CO2 in Mars atmosphere come from?

As far as I know, Earth and Mars were relatively similar when the solar system formed. So most of the CO2 was used to form carbonic rocks (right?). I found that tectonic movements are the reason that ...
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1answer
167 views

Are the darker blue/black areas in this picture what the atmosphere of Jupiter looks like without clouds?

This is a picture (mosaic?) of Jupiter's south pole taken by Juno (also shown below). It has gotten a lot of press, but I haven't seen anything, even in the scientific paper that accompanied its ...
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79 views

Does space not make sound, or can we just not hear it? [duplicate]

This is a question regarding sound waves and space. I know that sound waves must travel through a medium "air", enter our brains, and then we can decipher what exactly the sound is. But in space, ...
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1answer
1k views

Does the Sun have any atmosphere?

Does the Sun have any atmosphere of its own? Is it just like the atmospheres that the planets have.
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1answer
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What are reliable resources for weather and all other atmospheric obstructions?

Everyone knows you need clear skies to see what the stars or the Sun is doing. Weather is not too particularly hard to determine. There are many resources out there that will tell us the weather in ...
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1answer
86 views

Pluto is fuzed to all the asteroids, comets, other minor planets, etc. Would it be big enough to hold an atmosphere without forming a tail? [closed]

Pluto is fuzed to all the asteroids, comets, other minor planets, etc. Would it be big enough to hold an atmosphere without forming a tail? All minor planets, asteroids, comets, etc that aren't ...
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1answer
69 views

If gaseous planets have solid core, can they theoretically be considered as rocky planets?

I read that gaseous planets such as Jupiter and Saturn, have a solid core deep inside. So, I wondered whats the difference between them and rocky planets apart from the fact that they have - what can ...
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1answer
84 views

If a rocky world is large enough (not a gas or ice giant) can it have helium from the primordial disk in its atmosphere?

When planets are formed do only gas and ice giants accrete hydrogen and helium? Does this accretion have to be beyond the "snow line"? In other words, would all hydrogen or helium in the atmosphere ...
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1answer
210 views

What is germane doing in the atmosphere of Jupiter?

Germane (GeH4) has been detected in the atmosphere Jupiter. Its formation from the elements seems to be thermodynamically unfavorable because its enthalpy of formation is positive and (I think) it ...
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177 views

Helium in terrestrial planet atmospheres?

When you look at effective temperature ranges and escape velocities of planets, there is a "population" where hydrogen escapes, but helium doesn't. Is it feasible that there may be planets less that ...
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1answer
139 views

Does the given radius of a planet/moon include its atmosphere?

In NASA fact sheets, such as this one for Venus, a radius of the planet is given. Is that radius the radius of the surface of the planet, or of the envelope of atmosphere? Put another way, if ...
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1answer
81 views

Effect of Hot/Warm Jupiter atmosphere loss on other planets

Let us suppose a solar system with a Hot/Warm Jupiter HJ (with a semi-major axis somewhere from 0.5 AU to 0.0001 AU) and an Earth-Like planet EL in it (with a semi-major axis of about 1 AU). Let their ...
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1answer
42 views

Can IR sensitive cameras read signals from Venus's surface emissions?

This question got me thinking about this. I know that we measure the Earth's surface temperature by satellite (perhaps somewhat inaccurately, but it's done all the same). Using Venus as an ...
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2answers
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Are exoplanets at dwarf stars less likely to have super-rotating atmospheres or asynchronous tidal locking?

Dwarf stars have terrestrial sized planets orbiting in habitable zones very close to them. These exoplanets are often said to be tidally locked to their star, like the Moon is to Earth, and that they ...
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What causes the abundance of dust to 'float' in the thin lunar atmosphere?

Several missions to the Moon have revealed a lunar horizon glow, such as the ones seen below by the spacecraft Surveyor 7 in 1968: Image source: NASA According to the NASA article "Model Helps ...
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What does forward modeling mean?

In my research on exoplanets, I have heard many people talk "forward modeling of exoplanet atmospheres". I don't know what the "forward" means in "forward modeling" and how it compares with "reverse ...