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Questions regarding a layer of gasses surrounding a celestial object.

5
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1answer
105 views

How deep in Mars would a person not need insulation and pressure? [duplicate]

How deep in Mars' surface would one have to go to both not need a pressurized suit and be warm enough to just wear clothes? in other words is there a dept Goldilocks where you would only need an ...
5
votes
1answer
99 views

Does Pluto's atmosphere collapse?

There were theories that Pluto's atmosphere collapses when it gets too far from the sun. Then I've read papers that says that it doesn't. But NASA says that the surface pressure went down recently (...
47
votes
5answers
9k views

Why is moon light not the same color as sunlight?

The light from the moon is light being reflected from the sun. The sun, in space, is white. But on Earth, when the light is filtered through an atmosphere, the light appears yellow. So then, why is ...
5
votes
2answers
94 views

Say we were to bring Titan to Earth's orbit. How much would its atmospheric pressure change?

I've heard one of the reason why Titan has such a thick atmosphere is because of its really low temperature. So say that were were to magically bring Titan to the Same orbit as Earth, and the moon ...
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vote
2answers
81 views

Can a planet's gravity rip out its moon's atmosphere?

We all know that solar flares can rip a planet's atmosphere if the magnetic field is weak.Solar flares travel at tremendous speed so when they hit the gas molecules of a atmosphere the molecules are ...
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votes
1answer
66 views

Where will the atmosphere of our Earth go if our sun blows it away completely?

What will happen?Will our atmosphere head to the next gravity dominant body?Will our moon hold a part of our atmosphere or is too weak to hold it?Where all those gases are supposed to go?
2
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0answers
50 views

Is thermal disintegration of meteorites variable with lattitude?

If meteorites and bolides are aligned to the solar system, then do they have twice as much atmosphere to go through at high latitudes? Wouldn't we expect a higher percentage of metal meteorites ...
3
votes
1answer
100 views

Helium discovered on an exo planet

Why is there so much excitement over helium having been discovered on an exoplanet? Isn't it oxygen that we should be looking for, since this is what is needed for life? What do we need helium for?
2
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1answer
26 views

Scattered Intensity of Light vs Angles of Incidence and Emission

So I just derived an expression for the scattered intensity of light from an atmosphere with ideal isotopic scattering: $I/F=\frac{cos(i)}{4(cos(e)+cos(i))}$, where $I$ is intensity, $F$ is flux, $i$ ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

Is there a comfortable part of Venus's upper atmosphere?

I know the surface of Venus is very hot, but that it gets cooler the higher you go in the atmosphere. I have heard that there is a section in the atmosphere of Venus that might be somewhat habitable ...
3
votes
1answer
92 views

What would the pressure and temperature of gas be, right above Jupiter's gas/liquid boundary?

Older pages like this "Exploration of the Solar System" course page describe the transition as being a few hundred kilometers down. More recent findings seem to put the boundary deeper. See The ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

What does “O I” mean in the context of detected molecules?

I've recently been analysing the Exoplanet Database, and have been looking at the 'molecules' field (molecules detected on the planet or in its atmosphere). They all make sense apart from "O I". It's ...
3
votes
1answer
53 views

What is tilt anisoplanatism for Laser-guide-star usage in adaptive optic systems?

How does tip-tilt mirrors correct such issue? What is the physical origin of the error?
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Venusian polar surface temperatures

I've stumbled across several articles about how the Venusian polar high atmosphere is really cold. What these articles appear to fail to specify is what the surface temperatures of the poles are. I am ...
3
votes
1answer
86 views

Do the gases in the Earth's atmosphere affect the color of a lunar eclipse?

As the sun's rays pass through the Earth's atmosphere only the red light gets through. Is this the result of specific gases in the Earth's atmosphere filtering the red light? Does all of the nitrogen ...
10
votes
0answers
272 views

Terrestrial Exoplanet Skies – I've Built a Visual Sky Chart. Is it Accurate?

I'm an artist (and science enthusiast) and I've been trying to find a comprehensive resource that would help me clearly identify likely sky colors (as perceived by human vision) for exoplanets that ...
1
vote
1answer
103 views

How much time does it take for a meteor (shooting star) to touch the ground after its combustion? [closed]

I know that meteors that We see as shooting stars travel tens of thousands of kilometers per hour and are tiny as a grain of sand, but after hitting the atmosphere and burn I suppose that its ashes ...
3
votes
1answer
90 views

Is it thought that the majority of Earth size or larger terrrestrial planets have retained most of their original atmospheres?

I used to think that most terrestrial planet atmospheres were secondary (from out gassing). However, after reading this https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20140017487.pdf and ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

How long can afterglow last after a fireball?

I was watching the YouTube video Perseid Meteor Shower - Mojave Desert, California which looks East before sunrise, presumably in mid-August of 2016. I've made a GIF of a few seconds near the ...
0
votes
1answer
127 views

The consequences and the mechanisms of a shift of the Earth away from the sun

First premise: I have already made this question in the worldbuilding section, but since it is a very specific question many have recommended me to write in the astronomy section so here we are. ...
3
votes
2answers
553 views

Where does the CO2 in Mars atmosphere come from?

As far as I know, Earth and Mars were relatively similar when the solar system formed. So most of the CO2 was used to form carbonic rocks (right?). I found that tectonic movements are the reason that ...
2
votes
1answer
144 views

Are the darker blue/black areas in this picture what the atmosphere of Jupiter looks like without clouds?

This is a picture (mosaic?) of Jupiter's south pole taken by Juno (also shown below). It has gotten a lot of press, but I haven't seen anything, even in the scientific paper that accompanied its ...
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0answers
77 views

Does space not make sound, or can we just not hear it? [duplicate]

This is a question regarding sound waves and space. I know that sound waves must travel through a medium "air", enter our brains, and then we can decipher what exactly the sound is. But in space, ...
1
vote
1answer
982 views

Does the Sun have any atmosphere?

Does the Sun have any atmosphere of its own? Is it just like the atmospheres that the planets have.
0
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1answer
23 views

What are reliable resources for weather and all other atmospheric obstructions?

Everyone knows you need clear skies to see what the stars or the Sun is doing. Weather is not too particularly hard to determine. There are many resources out there that will tell us the weather in ...
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votes
1answer
81 views

Pluto is fuzed to all the asteroids, comets, other minor planets, etc. Would it be big enough to hold an atmosphere without forming a tail? [closed]

Pluto is fuzed to all the asteroids, comets, other minor planets, etc. Would it be big enough to hold an atmosphere without forming a tail? All minor planets, asteroids, comets, etc that aren't ...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

If gaseous planets have solid core, can they theoretically be considered as rocky planets?

I read that gaseous planets such as Jupiter and Saturn, have a solid core deep inside. So, I wondered whats the difference between them and rocky planets apart from the fact that they have - what can ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

If a rocky world is large enough (not a gas or ice giant) can it have helium from the primordial disk in its atmosphere?

When planets are formed do only gas and ice giants accrete hydrogen and helium? Does this accretion have to be beyond the "snow line"? In other words, would all hydrogen or helium in the atmosphere ...
2
votes
1answer
145 views

What is germane doing in the atmosphere of Jupiter?

Germane (GeH4) has been detected in the atmosphere Jupiter. Its formation from the elements seems to be thermodynamically unfavorable because its enthalpy of formation is positive and (I think) it ...
6
votes
1answer
154 views

Helium in terrestrial planet atmospheres?

When you look at effective temperature ranges and escape velocities of planets, there is a "population" where hydrogen escapes, but helium doesn't. Is it feasible that there may be planets less that ...
2
votes
1answer
121 views

Does the given radius of a planet/moon include its atmosphere?

In NASA fact sheets, such as this one for Venus, a radius of the planet is given. Is that radius the radius of the surface of the planet, or of the envelope of atmosphere? Put another way, if ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Effect of Hot/Warm Jupiter atmosphere loss on other planets

Let us suppose a solar system with a Hot/Warm Jupiter HJ (with a semi-major axis somewhere from 0.5 AU to 0.0001 AU) and an Earth-Like planet EL in it (with a semi-major axis of about 1 AU). Let their ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Can IR sensitive cameras read signals from Venus's surface emissions?

This question got me thinking about this. I know that we measure the Earth's surface temperature by satellite (perhaps somewhat inaccurately, but it's done all the same). Using Venus as an ...
1
vote
2answers
104 views

Are exoplanets at dwarf stars less likely to have super-rotating atmospheres or asynchronous tidal locking?

Dwarf stars have terrestrial sized planets orbiting in habitable zones very close to them. These exoplanets are often said to be tidally locked to their star, like the Moon is to Earth, and that they ...
5
votes
1answer
77 views

What causes the abundance of dust to 'float' in the thin lunar atmosphere?

Several missions to the Moon have revealed a lunar horizon glow, such as the ones seen below by the spacecraft Surveyor 7 in 1968: Image source: NASA According to the NASA article "Model Helps ...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

What does forward modeling mean?

In my research on exoplanets, I have heard many people talk "forward modeling of exoplanet atmospheres". I don't know what the "forward" means in "forward modeling" and how it compares with "reverse ...
3
votes
1answer
146 views

Can lunar atmospheric density, as it exists today, increase naturally?

Are there any mechanisms which could increase the density of the moon's atmosphere. The moon's existing atmosphere is exceeding rare, with about 1 000 000 molecules of gas per cubic centimeter at the ...
2
votes
2answers
183 views

Can a planet with a hydrogen atmosphere have a water ocean with dissolved oxygen? [closed]

Reading up on rogue planets (i. e. planets not orbiting a star), it turns out that a rogue Super-Earth with a sufficiently dense hydrogen atmosphere could retain its internal heat and have oceans/...
4
votes
2answers
311 views

How does the dense atmosphere of Venus affect the planet's rotation?

Reading through questions about my favourite planet, Venus, I came across this answer to the question What is the current accepted theory as to why Venus has a slow retrograde rotation?, specifically ...
10
votes
2answers
467 views

How can clouds form in Jupiter's atmosphere of Hydrogen and Helium?

Here is a graphic of cloud layers of Jupiter (source: Wikipedia): There are three distinct cloud layers of ammonia, ammonium hydrosulfide, and water. The temperature and pressure conditions seem to ...
5
votes
0answers
146 views

Is the wind's intensity on Mars similar to Earth?

I've read that in Mars' poles, the winds can be as fast as 400 km/h, when the poles are exposed to sunlight because the frozen $CO_2$ sublimes. I know that the Martian atmosphere is much thinner than ...
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votes
1answer
269 views

Is it possible that Fly a Boeing 777 plane on Moon? [closed]

i always wondered that Is it possible that Fly a Boeing 777 Air Craft on Moon? if cannot how this moon lander's (Apollo) landing in Moon taking off from the moon?
5
votes
1answer
109 views

Is there a consensus as to where terrrestrial planet atmospheres in our solar system came from?

I tried to research this and I'm not sure if there is a consensus where the $CO_2$, $N_2$, etc. comes from on terrestrial planets like Venus, Earth and Mars. Possible sources would be accretion from ...
13
votes
1answer
1k views

How much clearer are stars in earths orbit?

As a child I remember my parents taking camping in California, and upon stepping out of the car I was awestruck at how thick the Milky Way galaxy was and at the number of stars everywhere. I've always ...
29
votes
1answer
3k views

Can a tectonically inactive planet retain a long-term atmosphere?

Can a planet be tectonically inactive and still retain a magnetosphere and protected atmosphere? How does that work? How else could a planet retain a thick atmosphere like Earth's for extensive ...
3
votes
2answers
67 views

Terminology: planet plus atmosphere vs planet and atmosphere as separate things

When discussing a rocky planet, is there any terminology to distinguish that you're talking about the whole thing, including the atmosphere, veruses that you're talking about the ocean + crust + ...
9
votes
1answer
92 views

What is the projected range of the JWST to be able to detect exoplanet atmospheres?

Yesterday the K2 mission detected transit events of objects passing in front of a number of M dwarfs which could turn out to be rocky planets. If some of these planets host atmospheres, could the JWST ...
10
votes
1answer
1k views

Why are Saturn bands much fainter than Jupiter's?

The atmospheric composition of both planets are very similar. Then why are Jupiter's bands more visible (North and South equatorial belt, etc.): Whilst Saturn's are not: (except for the storm of ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

Does the summit of a small mountain offer better seeing?

I have a small amateur telescope, and would like to defeat the atmospheric seeing conditions as much as is possible. Fortuitously, I happen to live fairly close to this lovely patch of bare elevated ...
1
vote
1answer
110 views

How do astronomers detect gases that are in the atmosphere of exoplanets?

Exoplanets are planets that are located outside our solar system - whether that be orbiting a star or drifting past one. Now, the closest star to us is Alpha Centauri which is just over four light-...