Questions tagged [atmosphere]

Questions regarding a layer of gasses surrounding a celestial object.

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9
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3answers
2k views

How do we get to know the total mass of an atmosphere?

Since atmospheres don't end abruptly but gradually get thinner the higher you go, I wonder how we can get the total mass of an atmosphere if we don't know where exactly it ends. E.g. the Earth's ...
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Does lightning on Venus affect the chemical composition of the clouds?

It is established that lightning occurs on Venus due to the presence of sulfuric acid clouds. Does this constant electric discharges and possible electrolysis affects the composition of the clouds on ...
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Do brown dwarfs have stripes?

Brown dwarfs (BD) are often depicted with stripes. brown dwarf Jupiter Pictures of BD resemble Jupiter but brown dwarfs ...
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1answer
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What is the nature of bright spots found on Uranus?

The following text is from space.com which was written during the time of discovery of the first dark spot on Uranus: During the past decade, many bright spots have been seen on Uranus in both red ...
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1answer
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How are sulfuric acid clouds able to completely cover Venus?

It is a well-known fact that an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid completely shrouds Venus preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light. This is mentioned ...
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1answer
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If water vapor is always blown away into space, how is it able to create chemical compounds on Venus?

This is the follow-up of this chem.SE question. According to Wikipedia, water vapor on Venus is present in trace amount (20 ppm). There are multiple reasons why Venus has very low water content: The ...
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1answer
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Is dust the only reason why the Martian sky is so bright?

The atmospheric pressure on the surface of Mars is 0.00609 atm on average and 0.012 atm at most in the Hellas Basin. On Earth, at these pressures, which are found at altitudes about 30-35 km (19-22 mi)...
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1answer
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What is the difference between aurorae and electroglow?

One of the discoveries of Voyager 2 at Uranus was a phenomenon called "electroglow", which as I understand it is related to charged particles interacting with the atmosphere that cause the ...
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How to find the temperature of a planet accounting for the atmosphere?

Recently, I started writing a program to generate star systems, and I need a formula to find the approximate surface temperature of a planet. I know of several formulas for this, for example this one ...
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1answer
51 views

Air molecules per cubic foot at a certain altitude above the surface

The Earth's and other celestial bodies' atmospheres become thinner the higher you go. Imagine you were able to see atoms/molecules. At what altitude above the Earth's and Mars' surface would you see ...
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Is there any synthetic spectrum software for neutron star?

Is there any software that can calculate the emergent spectrum of a neutron star photosphere, for Teff is about 1e7K, density is above 1e21-1e22 cm^-3 ? Output line wavelength is about 0-100A is ...
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1answer
69 views

At what distance could a supernova damage the Earth's ozone layer?

As from my latter question it seems Betelgeuse might be much closer than the usually presumed 640 light years. It might be as close as ~440 ly. Suppose it is, would this have any dangerous effects on ...
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1answer
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Would Europa be an ocean planet if it were in the habitable zone?

If a Europa-like body were in the Sun's habitable zone, let's say in an orbit between Earth and Mars, would the body become and remain a water ocean planet? In the habitable zone, the Sun would warm ...
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How does Io's atmosphere behave in volcanic plumes?

Io's surface air pressure is about 0.3 millipascals but Io's atmosphere is strongly variable, depending on whether it's on the near side or far side of Io (relative to Jupiter) and it collapses at ...
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Which moons do have neutrospheres?

Or in other words: which moons do have ionospheres but not surface-bound ones? The space beneath an ionosphere is called a neutrosphere. I only know of Titan. I know that the Galilean moons and Triton ...
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1answer
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Is Jupiter as opaque as it looks?

Although it is impossible to tell what is and isn't false color (aside from the adage that it probably is false). It's inarguable that no picture of a gas giant shows any depth or significant ...
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1answer
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Why do gas giants have clearly delineated surfaces, whereas the Earth's atmosphere fades into space?

I've just seen this Forbes article. Why do gas giants appear to have clearly delineated surfaces, whereas the Earth's atmosphere fades into space? Is it just a matter of scale? Or is there some ...
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1answer
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Why doesn't Titan have a carbon dioxide atmosphere?

Earth's primitive atmosphere had large amounts of carbon dioxide, as did the ancient Martian atmosphere. Venus's current atmosphere is no exception either. So why does Titan have next to none of this ...
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Ladakh India where the moon (Ramadan moon) is sighted but not in rest of India [duplicate]

Today 22 May 2020 around 3 p.m Ladakh India sighted new moon(Ramadan moon) but not in rest of India.I read many articles acc. To them it is not visible today, then how it was seen from Ladakh... .
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1answer
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How many times can iron be detected for the first time in an exoplanetary atmosphere?

I see today that there's a story about the first detection of iron in an exoplanetary atmosphere, in this case in the atmosphere of the ultra-hot Jupiter KELT-9b. I remember there being a story a ...
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1answer
135 views

Could Eris have a permanent atmosphere?

In Wikipedia they write that Eris has an atmosphere when around perihelion (close to the Sun) which collapses when Eris moves away from the Sun. So it behaves similar to a comet's tail. However, they ...
3
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1answer
101 views

If Jupiter would stop rotating, would its atmosphere become homogeneous and single coloured?

Looking at pictures of Jupiter, there are many different colours and patterns. I imagine that the rotation has much to do with this, since there are horizontal "bands" across the planet along the ...
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2answers
106 views

Why is blue light extincted more strongly than red?

We know that blue light suffers extinction more strongly than red (examples include ISM, atmosphere etc.), but why? Is it a property of the shorter wavelength itself? Can someone provide a conceptual ...
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X-rays, Solar wind and Sun's corona

I was reading that Solar corona emits the solar wind however also X-rays. What is the difference during the creation of these effects and impacts on our atmosphere? Thank you!
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Is the atmosphere of neutron star solid, liquid or gaseous state? [duplicate]

Neutron star has a thin layer of atmosphere consist mostly of hydrogen and helium and is about less than a metre thick on average, but what wasn't stated in many articles I read is the state of matter ...
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2answers
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What is the horizontal distance needed to observe an object just as badly as if it where in space at the zenith?

When I see an object in space (let's say the ISS) above my head, my line of sight traverses ~$100\; km$ of atmosphere. The vast majority of the extinction, absorption and turbulence happens closer to ...
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1answer
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How does one find the electric conductivy of a planet's atmosphere?

I am working on an undergraduate project in which we study shaped structures in the atmosphere of the gas giants. We are investigating whether the magnetic field is the source of the instability ...
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3answers
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Could a Jovian or Saturnian moon keep its atmosphere if the system was within the habitable zone?

Currently the atmosphere of Titan is 1.5x thicker than Earth's atmosphere, but it's also much much colder. It's been said that an astronomical body can keep it's atmosphere if the escape velocity is ...
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Why does Titan have an atmosphere while similar moons such as the Galilean moons don't?

The Galilean moons of Jupiter are similar in size to Titan and are also protected by their parent planet's magnetic field. How come only Titan is able to maintain an atmosphere?
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When and where are we exposed to most cosmic radiation?

I understand the mechanical dynamics of being faced away from the Sun at night, having a lower altitude, not being in the weak points at the poles in the atmosphere, being in a valley and others ...
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2answers
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What if the atmosphere of Titan were like the one on Venus?

The current mean temperature in Titan is −180 ºC (93 K), the same as in Saturn. But I was wondering what would be the case if the atmosphere of Titan would be like the Venus atmosphere, whose ...
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0answers
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What would happen to the atmosphere of a rogue jovian planet?

Let's say we have a gas giant composed primarily of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich molecules that is ejected from its star system. As this planet embarks on its potentially infinite journey out into the ...
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1answer
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Why are cirrus clouds more common on Mars?

Mars water ice clouds are often associated with regional- to-global circulation and saturation conditions, as opposed to local convective overturning, and so typically exhibit cirrus rather than ...
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2answers
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A neutron star without a flat surface and an atmosphere?

In the Kurzgesagt video Atoms As Big As Mountains — Neutron Stars Explained they state that neutron stars have an atmosphere that reaches about 10 centimeters above the surface. How is this possible?...
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1answer
288 views

Is the moon inside earth’s atmosphere? If so, what are the consequences?

Recently, a paper was published claiming that the Earth’s atmosphere extends far beyond the Moon. This has been reported on by a number of news sources and websites, including the ESA, Business ...
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2answers
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Could Mars have oil?

What events could have to happen to Mars (which is thought to once look like Earth) that may have depleted the atmosphere and erase all proof of life ever existing at least on the surface? I know an ...
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2answers
293 views

What was the first astronomical measurement which demonstrated that “the Earth is surrounded by vacuum”?

The question Who was the first to realize that the Earth is surrounded by vacuum? was closed because some users felt it was answered by answers to a different question in an different SE site: Who was ...
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5answers
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Vacuum of space [closed]

Firstly I’m genuinely interesting in a working explanation for this question. It is for this reason that I am editing the question to fine tune the question. In essense the question has remained the ...
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1answer
223 views

Does Jupiter lose some atmosphere at all?

I've hear of something like this: "All planets lose their atmospheres eventually and they become a barren rock if given enough time." There are three types of atmospheric loss ways: Jeans Escape: ...
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1answer
303 views

What causes Titan a moon to have a denser atmosphere than that of a Mars?

I'm wondering about Mars and Titan. If Mars is larger than Titan how come it lost most of its atmosphere? Mars also has a magnetic field while Titan doesn't. Yet Titans atmospheric pressure on the ...
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2answers
224 views

Why is it that night has a almost a bluish tint to it instead of red?

From my understanding/been told, the color red has the ability to travel the farthest in our atmosphere, being the reason why we have red sunsets and such. But with this in mind, why is it that at ...
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1answer
236 views

what determines the density of atmospheres

What factors determine the atmospheric density on various planets and moons? Some larger bodies have less dense atmospheres, while some smaller ones have a more dense atmosphere.
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1answer
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What are the characteristics of solid carbon dioxide on the Martian poles?

When carbon dioxide forms on Mars is it like ice or snow? How dense is newly formed solid carbon dioxide? Would more carbon dioxide form inside a pit vs a flat plain? How thick or deep does solid ...
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3answers
450 views

Adiabatic versus convection

I am reading about the interior temperature structure of Jupiter. It says in various texts that there are regions in Jupiter's atmosphere which are well-approximated by a dry adiabatic lapse rate. ...
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2answers
192 views

Is Titan Better or Mars? [closed]

Isn't Titan better to colonize than Mars? It has a thick atmosphere which is made up of nitrogen like our planet's. It doesn't have a magnetic field, but it does get a type of protection from Saturn. ...
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1answer
893 views

How does gravity affect pressure under water?

How different would being under water in Europa differ from being under water on Earth? Would it be possible to dive deeper on Europa with a submarine than on Earth and by how much?
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1answer
282 views

What is the underwater temperature of Europa?

If Europa has an oxygen atmosphere with a water mantle, is it possible that there could be life under the crust of Europa ice on the ocean where it is warmer? What could be the temperature under the ...
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1answer
71 views

Solution for counting atmospheric layers of planets according to relational data [closed]

This math states, that by multiplying the gravitational pull (we assume square of density of the planet), by its inclination (being how high and out it goes) and subtracting that loop from the ...
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1answer
293 views

Mars vs Venus: the retention of atmospheres in relationship to Earth

Correct me if I'm wrong, but the factors than enable a planet to retain or lose an atmosphere seem to be: 1. Magnetic Field, 2. Solar Winds, 3.Weight of Gases, 4. Planetary Temperatures. 5. Distance ...
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3answers
862 views

Why do stars twinkle but planets don't [duplicate]

Many people say that stars twinkle because of Earth's atmosphere. However, the atmosphere is still there when we look at planets and don't see they twinkling. Is there a clear scientific consensual ...