Questions tagged [atmosphere]

Questions regarding a layer of gasses surrounding a celestial object.

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Is there any synthetic spectrum software for neutron star?

Is there any software that can calculate the emergent spectrum of a neutron star photosphere, for Teff is about 1e7K, density is above 1e21-1e22 cm^-3 ? Output line wavelength is about 0-100A is ...
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At what distance could a supernova damage the Earth's ozone layer?

As from my latter question it seems Betelgeuse might be much closer than the usually presumed 640 light years. It might be as close as ~440 ly. Suppose it is, would this have any dangerous effects on ...
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Adiabatic versus convection

I am reading about the interior temperature structure of Jupiter. It says in various texts that there are regions in Jupiter's atmosphere which are well-approximated by a dry adiabatic lapse rate. ...
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Would Europa be an ocean planet if it were in the habitable zone?

If a Europa-like body were in the Sun's habitable zone, let's say in an orbit between Earth and Mars, would the body become and remain a water ocean planet? In the habitable zone, the Sun would warm ...
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Why has Venus's atmosphere not been stripped away by solar wind?

This answer on Space Exploration to a question about Mars says that one reason Mars has such a thin atmosphere is because it lacks a magnetic field to protect it from the effect of double solar winds. ...
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How does Io's atmosphere behave in volcanic plumes?

Io's surface air pressure is about 0.3 millipascals but Io's atmosphere is strongly variable, depending on whether it's on the near side or far side of Io (relative to Jupiter) and it collapses at ...
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Which moons do have neutrospheres?

Or in other words: which moons do have ionospheres but not surface-bound ones? The space beneath an ionosphere is called a neutrosphere. I only know of Titan. I know that the Galilean moons and Triton ...
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Is Jupiter as opaque as it looks?

Although it is impossible to tell what is and isn't false color (aside from the adage that it probably is false). It's inarguable that no picture of a gas giant shows any depth or significant ...
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Why do gas giants have clearly delineated surfaces, whereas the Earth's atmosphere fades into space?

I've just seen this Forbes article. Why do gas giants appear to have clearly delineated surfaces, whereas the Earth's atmosphere fades into space? Is it just a matter of scale? Or is there some ...
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Why doesn't Titan have a carbon dioxide atmosphere?

Earth's primitive atmosphere had large amounts of carbon dioxide, as did the ancient Martian atmosphere. Venus's current atmosphere is no exception either. So why does Titan have next to none of this ...
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Ladakh India where the moon (Ramadan moon) is sighted but not in rest of India [duplicate]

Today 22 May 2020 around 3 p.m Ladakh India sighted new moon(Ramadan moon) but not in rest of India.I read many articles acc. To them it is not visible today, then how it was seen from Ladakh... .
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How many times can iron be detected for the first time in an exoplanetary atmosphere?

I see today that there's a story about the first detection of iron in an exoplanetary atmosphere, in this case in the atmosphere of the ultra-hot Jupiter KELT-9b. I remember there being a story a ...
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Is it possible to see Saturn from Titan's surface, day and night?

Titan is the only moon in our solar system with a thick atmosphere, similar to what our Earth's atmosphere was before life "appeared". It also orbits Saturn close enough to actually see it beautifully ...
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Terrestrial Exoplanet Skies – I've Built a Visual Sky Chart. Is it Accurate?

I'm an artist (and science enthusiast) and I've been trying to find a comprehensive resource that would help me clearly identify likely sky colors (as perceived by human vision) for exoplanets that ...
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Could Eris have a permanent atmosphere?

In Wikipedia they write that Eris has an atmosphere when around perihelion (close to the Sun) which collapses when Eris moves away from the Sun. So it behaves similar to a comet's tail. However, they ...
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If Jupiter would stop rotating, would its atmosphere become homogeneous and single coloured?

Looking at pictures of Jupiter, there are many different colours and patterns. I imagine that the rotation has much to do with this, since there are horizontal "bands" across the planet along the ...
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Why is blue light extincted more strongly than red?

We know that blue light suffers extinction more strongly than red (examples include ISM, atmosphere etc.), but why? Is it a property of the shorter wavelength itself? Can someone provide a conceptual ...
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X-rays, Solar wind and Sun's corona

I was reading that Solar corona emits the solar wind however also X-rays. What is the difference during the creation of these effects and impacts on our atmosphere? Thank you!
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Is the atmosphere of neutron star solid, liquid or gaseous state? [duplicate]

Neutron star has a thin layer of atmosphere consist mostly of hydrogen and helium and is about less than a metre thick on average, but what wasn't stated in many articles I read is the state of matter ...
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What is the horizontal distance needed to observe an object just as badly as if it where in space at the zenith?

When I see an object in space (let's say the ISS) above my head, my line of sight traverses ~$100\; km$ of atmosphere. The vast majority of the extinction, absorption and turbulence happens closer to ...
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How does one find the electric conductivy of a planet's atmosphere?

I am working on an undergraduate project in which we study shaped structures in the atmosphere of the gas giants. We are investigating whether the magnetic field is the source of the instability ...
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If gaseous planets have solid core, can they theoretically be considered as rocky planets?

I read that gaseous planets such as Jupiter and Saturn, have a solid core deep inside. So, I wondered whats the difference between them and rocky planets apart from the fact that they have - what can ...
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What does forward modeling mean?

In my research on exoplanets, I have heard many people talk "forward modeling of exoplanet atmospheres". I don't know what the "forward" means in "forward modeling" and how it compares with "reverse ...
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Why did Venus not lose its atmosphere without magnetic field?

It is often stated that the magnetosphere not only shields the planet from cosmic radiation, but also prevents atmospheric loss. Why then did Venus not lose most of its atmosphere if it doesn't have a ...
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When and where are we exposed to most cosmic radiation?

I understand the mechanical dynamics of being faced away from the Sun at night, having a lower altitude, not being in the weak points at the poles in the atmosphere, being in a valley and others ...
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Could a Jovian or Saturnian moon keep its atmosphere if the system was within the habitable zone?

Currently the atmosphere of Titan is 1.5x thicker than Earth's atmosphere, but it's also much much colder. It's been said that an astronomical body can keep it's atmosphere if the escape velocity is ...
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Why does Titan have an atmosphere while similar moons such as the Galilean moons don't?

The Galilean moons of Jupiter are similar in size to Titan and are also protected by their parent planet's magnetic field. How come only Titan is able to maintain an atmosphere?
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In the end what is the ultimate matter/element in the universe, due to fusion process in stars?

We know that, in stars, hydrogen is used by the stars and due to the fusion in two hydrogen elements we get helium -> Carbon -> Oxygen ->Other elements -> Iron -> then Super/Hypernova. If everywhere ...
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What if the atmosphere of Titan were like the one on Venus?

The current mean temperature in Titan is −180 ºC (93 K), the same as in Saturn. But I was wondering what would be the case if the atmosphere of Titan would be like the Venus atmosphere, whose ...
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Why is moon light not the same color as sunlight?

The light from the moon is light being reflected from the sun. The sun, in space, is white. But on Earth, when the light is filtered through an atmosphere, the light appears yellow. So then, why is ...
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What would happen to the atmosphere of a rogue jovian planet?

Let's say we have a gas giant composed primarily of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich molecules that is ejected from its star system. As this planet embarks on its potentially infinite journey out into the ...
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1answer
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Why do most meteors vanish just before hitting the ground?

Many times we see in the sky that most of the meteor shower trails vanish when they are about to strike the earth several feet above the ground. Why does this happen? They could strike the earth's ...
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Why are cirrus clouds more common on Mars?

Mars water ice clouds are often associated with regional- to-global circulation and saturation conditions, as opposed to local convective overturning, and so typically exhibit cirrus rather than ...
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Can a planet with a hydrogen atmosphere have a water ocean with dissolved oxygen? [closed]

Reading up on rogue planets (i. e. planets not orbiting a star), it turns out that a rogue Super-Earth with a sufficiently dense hydrogen atmosphere could retain its internal heat and have oceans/...
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Could Mars have oil?

What events could have to happen to Mars (which is thought to once look like Earth) that may have depleted the atmosphere and erase all proof of life ever existing at least on the surface? I know an ...
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A neutron star without a flat surface and an atmosphere?

In the Kurzgesagt video Atoms As Big As Mountains — Neutron Stars Explained they state that neutron stars have an atmosphere that reaches about 10 centimeters above the surface. How is this possible?...
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What was the first astronomical measurement which demonstrated that “the Earth is surrounded by vacuum”?

The question Who was the first to realize that the Earth is surrounded by vacuum? was closed because some users felt it was answered by answers to a different question in an different SE site: Who was ...
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1answer
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Is the moon inside earth’s atmosphere? If so, what are the consequences?

Recently, a paper was published claiming that the Earth’s atmosphere extends far beyond the Moon. This has been reported on by a number of news sources and websites, including the ESA, Business ...
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Vacuum of space [closed]

Firstly I’m genuinely interesting in a working explanation for this question. It is for this reason that I am editing the question to fine tune the question. In essense the question has remained the ...
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1answer
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Does Jupiter lose some atmosphere at all?

I've hear of something like this: "All planets lose their atmospheres eventually and they become a barren rock if given enough time." There are three types of atmospheric loss ways: Jeans Escape: ...
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Do the gases in the Earth's atmosphere affect the color of a lunar eclipse?

As the sun's rays pass through the Earth's atmosphere only the red light gets through. Is this the result of specific gases in the Earth's atmosphere filtering the red light? Does all of the nitrogen ...
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1answer
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What causes Titan a moon to have a denser atmosphere than that of a Mars?

I'm wondering about Mars and Titan. If Mars is larger than Titan how come it lost most of its atmosphere? Mars also has a magnetic field while Titan doesn't. Yet Titans atmospheric pressure on the ...
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What are the characteristics of solid carbon dioxide on the Martian poles?

When carbon dioxide forms on Mars is it like ice or snow? How dense is newly formed solid carbon dioxide? Would more carbon dioxide form inside a pit vs a flat plain? How thick or deep does solid ...
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Why is it that night has a almost a bluish tint to it instead of red?

From my understanding/been told, the color red has the ability to travel the farthest in our atmosphere, being the reason why we have red sunsets and such. But with this in mind, why is it that at ...
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what determines the density of atmospheres

What factors determine the atmospheric density on various planets and moons? Some larger bodies have less dense atmospheres, while some smaller ones have a more dense atmosphere.
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What causes the aurora of other planets to have different colors?

All I could come up with is it depends on the atmospheric composition of the planet as they will interact with the charged solar particles which might be true but is there is there a definite reason ...
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What is the underwater temperature of Europa?

If Europa has an oxygen atmosphere with a water mantle, is it possible that there could be life under the crust of Europa ice on the ocean where it is warmer? What could be the temperature under the ...
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Is Titan Better or Mars? [closed]

Isn't Titan better to colonize than Mars? It has a thick atmosphere which is made up of nitrogen like our planet's. It doesn't have a magnetic field, but it does get a type of protection from Saturn. ...
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What causes the abundance of dust to 'float' in the thin lunar atmosphere?

Several missions to the Moon have revealed a lunar horizon glow, such as the ones seen below by the spacecraft Surveyor 7 in 1968: Image source: NASA According to the NASA article "Model Helps ...
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Would a high albedo reflective substance cool down Venus?

If we were to put a highly reflective substance into Venus's upper atmosphere, could we cool it down? I am envisioning adding a highly reflective fine dust or gas, possibly lighter than "air" to the ...